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Title: Diagenetic modifications of the Eagle Ford Formation : implications on chemical and physical properties
Author: Mcallister, Richard
ISNI:       0000 0004 6496 372X
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2017
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This thesis investigates the impacts of diagenesis on the Late-Cretaceous Eagle Ford Formation (Fmn) in south-west Texas. This was achieved utilising many techniques such as of outcrop and core analysis, standard petrographic techniques (including cathodoluminescence [CL] and scanning electron microscopy [SEM]), and geochemical analysis (x-ray diffraction [XRD], stable isotope analysis of C and O within inorganic minerals and Rock Eval pyrolysis). The bulk of diagenetic products and textures were identified via petrographic techniques, with geochemical analysis confirming interpretations based on visual observations. This thesis shows the Eagle Ford Fmn is a calcareous, organic-rich mudstone containing eight distinct lithofacies, which have all been directly impacted by burial diagenesis. The Lower Eagle Ford Fmn mainly comprises of dark organic and clay-rich lithofacies which represent a classic source rock with interbedded carbonate rich lithofacies. The Upper Eagle Ford Fmn is organic and clay-poor, with the bulk of lithofacies carbonate dominated and heavily cemented. An initial anoxic, open marine depositional environment which transitions into an oxic deepening environment is inferred during deposition of the Eagle Ford Fmn. Early, microbial derived redox reactions have precipitated authigenic calcite and pyrite within the Eagle Ford Fmn. Authigenic calcite infills and preserves biogenic debris (mainly planktonic and benthic foraminifera), with pyrite framboids post-dating the carbonate cements. Kaolinite infilling biogenic debris is also a common occurrence indicating it is also an early diagenetic product. Smectite is converted to mixed layer I/Sand illite during deep burial processes at similar depths and temperatures to hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. Authigenic quartz cements precipitate within primary porosity and on top of carbonate cements. Chlorite is observed as the last mineral precipitated in the Eagle Ford Fmn, often pseudomorphed from kaolinite within the micritic matrix. Diagenesis has had the greatest impact on porosity distribution in the Eagle Ford Fmn. The organic, clay-rich lithofacies contain little intra/inter-crystalline porosity with the bulk observed as clay-held or organic porosity. Meanwhile the carbonate-rich lithofacies contain mainly intra-crystalline porosity. Concretions are a common feature observed in the Lower Eagle Ford Fmn outcrops. Four concretion types were identified and studied using a variety of petrological and geochemical techniques. Diagenesis plays a major role in all concretions types. However, primary factors such as sea level fluctuation, sediment input and tectonic activity also have key impacts on the formation of concretions.
Supervisor: Taylor, Kevin Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Eagle Ford Formation ; Diagenesis