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Title: Rapid classification and differentiation of bacteria by analytical techniques
Author: Almasoud, Nagla
ISNI:       0000 0004 6495 4516
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2016
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Several traditional methods have been used to characterise bacteria, such as biochemical, morphological and molecular tests; however, these methods are time-consuming and not always reliable. Recently, modern analytical techniques have emerged as powerful tools offering high-throughput, reliable and rapid analysis in applications, such as clinical and microbiology studies. A variety of modern analytical techniques have been employed for bacterial characterisation, including matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. This thesis focused on developing a robust MALDI-TOF-MS methodology to generate mass spectra profiles for the discrimination of clinically-significant bacteria. The data generated from MALDI-TOF-MS analysis are significantly influenced by a number of experimental factors, namely instrument settings, sample preparation, the choice of matrix, matrix additives and matrix preparation as well as sample-matrix deposition methods. The need to optimise experimental variables for bacterial analysis using MALDI-TOF-MS was evident despite the increased application of this analytical tool for clinical microbiology. Experimental optimisation revealed that the choice of matrix is the most important element in MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Based on this study, a number of different matrices were used to obtain more reproducible mass spectra to classify bacterial samples using a rapid and effective approach. Studies in this thesis indicated that sinapinic acid (SA) is the best matrix for the analysis of proteins from intact bacteria, while 6-aza-2-thiothymine (ATT) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) produced promising results for the analysis of lipid extracts from bacteria. Analytical techniques in combination with multivariate analysis, such as principal components analysis (PCA) and principal component-discriminant function analysis (PC-DFA), were used for bacterial discrimination. Classification was initially undertaken using MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, and subsequently FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and LC-MS were performed to confirm the classification results. Two main types of bacteria were used for this analysis: 34 strains from seven Bacillus and Brevibacillus species and 35 isolates from 12 Enterococcus faecium strains. The findings showed that the four analytical techniques provide clear discrimination between bacteria at these different levels. Classification of different Bacillus and Brevibacillus bacteria using MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of extracted lipids was confirmed by LC-MS data. In addition, MALDI-TOF-MS data based on extracted lipids and intact bacterial cell proteins were very similar. MALD-TOF-MS analysis of intact enterococci cells produced successful classification with 78% correct classification rate (CCR) at the strain level. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic data produced very similar bacterial classification with CCR of 89% and 69% at the strain level, respectively. However, classification based on MALDI-TOF-MS data and that based on spectroscopic data were slightly different (Procrustes distance of 0.81, p < 0.001, at the species level). Overall, the findings in this thesis indicate the potential of MALDI-TOF-MS as a rapid, robust and reliable method for the classification of bacteria based on different bacterial preparations.
Supervisor: Goodacre, Royston Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Classification ; mass spectrometry ; Raman spectroscopy ; FT-IR spectroscopy ; bacteria ; lipids ; proteins ; chemometrics