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Title: Immune responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to vaccination and immune stimulation
Author: Wangkahart, Eakapol
ISNI:       0000 0004 6423 2759
Awarding Body: University of Aberdeen
Current Institution: University of Aberdeen
Date of Award: 2017
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Vaccination and the use of immune stimulants are two important ways to mitigate the costs of disease in fish aquaculture. A vaccine to Enteric redmouth disease (ERM) was the first licensed fish vaccine in the world. Although effective in protecting fish from the motile bacterial (Yersinia ruckeri) infection, ERM can occur in ERM vaccinated fish due to the rise of non-motile Y. ruckeri that does not express flagellin. This highlighted the need for continual improvement of vaccine efficacy and the importance of flagellin in fish immune responses. In this thesis the immune response to the ERM vaccine was studied first to give insights for vaccine development. A recombinant flagellin from Y. ruckeri (YRF) was then produced and its bioactivities were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The immune response to ERM vaccination was studied in rainbow trout in two major and relevant immune organs, the spleen and gills. Intraperitoneal injection of the ERM vaccine induces an early balanced expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adaptive cytokines in the spleen, with a heightened expression of acute phase proteins (APPs) and anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) in both spleen and gills. The analysis suggests that ERM vaccination activates host innate immunity and the expression of specific IL-12 and IL-23 isoforms leading to a Th1 and Th17 biased immune responses. This study has increased our understanding of the host immune response to ERM vaccination and the adaptive pathways involved. The early responses of a set of genes established in this study may prove useful as biomarkers in future vaccine development in aquaculture. YRF was next produced in a bacterial system, and purified. Its bioactivity was investigated first in the trout macrophage cell line RTS-11 and head kidney primary cell cultures. YRF is a potent activator of pro-inflammatory cytokines, APPs, AMPs and subunits of the IL-12 cytokine family in vitro. This property was further confirm in vivo in multiple tissues after intraperitoneal injection of YRF. These results suggest that flagellins are important pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that can activate an inflammatory response in fish not only in vitro but also in vivo. Furthermore, YRF was shown to be the most potent PAMP in vitro, in terms of activation of an inflammatory response, compared to pure LPS and peptidoglycan. In addition, YRF mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant can induce YRF-specific IgM antibodies in rainbow trout. These antibodies are able to neutralize YRF bioactivity, and react against the middle domain of YRF, as assessed in Western blot analysis. When YRF was fused with a protein antigen, it increased the antigen-specific IgM antibody response. This analysis reveals that YRF is a potent activator of host immune responses and can be used as an immune stimulant and adjuvant to improve vaccine efficacy.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Ministry of Science and Technology ; Thailand ; Mahasarakham University ; Thailand ; European Commission 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Rainbow trout ; Vaccination ; Immune response