Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Responses of alternating current field measurement (ACFM) to rolling contact fatigue (RCF) cracks in railway rails
Author: Shen, Jialong
ISNI:       0000 0004 6423 1713
Awarding Body: University of Warwick
Current Institution: University of Warwick
Date of Award: 2017
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Full text unavailable from EThOS. Please try the link below.
Access from Institution:
Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) cracks are a widespread problem that impairs the service life of railway rails and wheels, with an associated high cost of labour and capital expenditure for remediation. Severe RCF cracks cause serious safety issues as they can turn down at a larger propagation angle into the rail potentially leading to a rail break. Rail grinding can effectively eliminate RCF cracks if they are detected when they are small enough to be removed. Alternating current field measurement (ACFM) is one of the electromagnetic (EM) techniques that can be used for defect detection and sizing in the rail industry. ACFM has been reported to be more accurate in providing length and depth information than conventional UT for small RCF cracks and is less sensitive to lift-off than eddy current methods. The aim of the present research is to analyse the response of ACFM signals to single and multiple RCF cracks in railway rails using experimental measurements and FE based modelling tools, focusing on the influences of crack vertical angle and multiple cracks (number, spacing, size, uniformity) on the ACFM signal to improve the accuracy of dimension predictions. A novel method (using the Bz signal) is proposed to determine the vertical angle of the RCF cracks, which then allows the crack vertical depth to be determined from the pocket length (standard output from ACFM measurements) and therefore the appropriate amount of rail grinding to remove the RCF cracks. It was found that the vertical angle influences the pocket length determined from the measured ΔBxmax/Bx value when the cracks are shallow (vertical angles < 30°), therefore greater accuracy can be obtained when compensating the ΔBxmax/Bx value using the determined vertical angle. It is shown that the variations of crack surface length, crack inner spacing and crack number for multiple cracks also influence the ΔBxmax/Bx values determined for multiple cracks. The influences of asymmetrical crack shapes on crack sizing are discussed, in general it has been found that for accurate sizing of RCF cracks using a single ACFM scan the cracks should be regular, where the assumption of semi ellipse shapes is appropriate. The methods developed in the project were assessed using calibration samples (machined cracks with different sizes and vertical angles) and rails removed from service containing single and multiple RCF cracks. It was found that the new approach proposed in this work allowed the vertical angle to be predicted well for single and multiple RCF cracks (difference to measurements < 14.3 %). In addition the error in pocket length prediction is greatly decreased when using the sizing method including compensation determined from the crack vertical angle.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: China Scholarship Council (CSC)
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: TF Railroad engineering and operation