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Title: The synthesis, reactivity and magnetism of lanthanide organometallic and coordination complexes
Author: Grindell, Richard
ISNI:       0000 0004 6425 5803
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2017
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This project was focused on the synthesis and reactivity of rare-earth nbutyl complexes of the formula [CpMe2M(μ-nBu)]2 (where M = Y, Dy). Dysprosium was used as it has a large magnetic moment which is favourable for producing single molecule magnets (SMMs). Yttrium was used as a diamagnetic analogue to examine the reactivity of [CpMe2Y(μ- nBu)]2 in solution, and provide further characterisation of isolated complexes with NMR spectroscopy. Another goal of the project was to establish the reactivity of [CpMe2M(μ- nBu)]2 with respect to the commonly used alkylating reagent nbutyllithium (nBuLi). It was found that the nbutyl complexes are remarkably stable in solution and the solid state, allowing for the synthesis to be scaled up and for the nbutyl complexes to be used as starting materials. The reactivity of [CpMe2M(μ- nBu)]2 towards ferrocene was investigated. The product was a ferrocenyl-bridged dimer of the formula [CpMe2M(μ-(C5H4)FeCp)]2 resulting from a single deprotonation of ferrocene. The reactivity of [CpMe2M(μ- nBu)]2 towards N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) was also investigated. No reaction occurred between [CpMe2Y(μ- nBu)]2 and 1,3-bis-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IPr), a reaction did occur between [CpMe2Y(μ- nBu)]2 and 1,3-bis-(tert-butyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (ItBu) but no crystalline product could be obtained. [CpMe2M(μ- nBu)]2 reacts with 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IMes) to form a monomeric, benzyl tethered carbene complex [CpMe2M(IMes’)]. An ortho-methyl group on one of the mesityl substituents is deprotonated generating an asymmetric functionalised carbene. A control experiment between CpMe3M (M = Dy, Y) and IMes resulted in the formation of the abnormal, rearranged carbene complexes [CpMe3M(aIMes)]. C6H6. Structural analysis revealed a very short C-H---π interaction between neighbouring molecules. The mechanism of carbene rearrangement was probed by 1H NMR spectroscopy (M = Y). Magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed that [CpMe2Dy(μ- nBu)]2, [CpMe2Dy(μ-(C5H4)FeCp)]2, [CpMe2Dy(IMes’)] and [CpMe3Dy(aIMes)]. C6H6 are not SMMs. [CpMe2M(μ- nBu)]2 activates sulfur and selenium to form hexanuclear clusters of the formula [CpMe10M((E3)2E2] (M = Dy, Y; E = S, Se). [CpMe10M((S3)2S2] is an SMM with an energy barrier to magnetisation reversal, Ueff, of 73 cm-1. The analogous selenium cluster could be characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction however separation from unreacted selenium proved difficult without using coordinating solvent. Extraction of [CpMe10Y((Se3)2Se2] with THF resulted in the crystallisation of the ion pair [CpMe2Y(THF)3][{CpMeY(Se2)}6Se] and [{CpMe2Y(THF)}(µ-Se2)]. A trimetallic dysprosium coordination complex containing a hexaazatrinapthalene (HAN) bridging ligand is reported. Magnetic measurements on [{(thd)3Dy}3HAN] (Dy3HAN) show that it is an SMM in zero field and two magnetic relaxation mechanisms are present. An optimised DC field of 1 kOe allowed for better resolution of the two relaxation processes and an energy barrier for each process could be extracted. The Ueff barriers are 42 and 52 cm-1. Ab initio theoretical analysis revealed the magnetic anisotropy axes are nearly collinear precluding the presence of a toroidal magnetic moment. The ground state of Dy3HAN was found to be frustrated.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: lanthanides ; organometallic synthesis ; molecular magnetism ; n-butyl complexes