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Title: Stimulation of intracellular proteolytic degradation as a means of reducing ER stress in a model of skeletal dysplasia
Author: Mullan, Lorna A.
ISNI:       0000 0004 6425 4958
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2015
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MCDS is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia disorder caused by mutations in collagen X. In most cases, mutations in collagen X result in a misfolded protein which is retained within the ER of hypertrophic chondrocytes, causing increased ER stress. It has previously been demonstrated that increased ER stress causes hypertrophic chondrocytes to de-differentiate in an attempt to avoid the stress. The altered differentiation results in reduced cell hypertrophy and impaired vascular invasion accounting for reduced bone growth. The presence of increased ER stress in hypertrophic chondrocytes is sufficient to cause the MCDS pathology; therefore reducing ER stress may be beneficial in terms of improving the associated pathology. The autophagy enhancing drug carbamazepine (CBZ) has been shown to be capable of reducing ER stress in cells expressing the MCDS-causing p.N617K collagen X mutation. I show in this thesis that CBZ treatment reduced ER stress in HeLa cells transiently expressing a further 3 MCDS-causing collagen X mutations. I have also demonstrated that CBZ treatment induced the degradation of mutant collagen X proteins either through autophagy or proteasomal degradation depending on the nature of the mutation. The drug was tested in vivo using the p.N617K collagen X mouse model of MCDS. In MCDS mice, CBZ reduced the severity of the disease pathology based on histological analyses, restored hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation toward normal, increased long bone growth rates and decreased the severity of the hip dysplasia. Gene expression analyses on RNA isolated from microdissected hypertrophic chondrocytes revealed that CBZ shifted the pattern of hypertrophic differentiation markers in MCDS mice toward the wild-type pattern, most likely through its stimulation of gene expression associated with intracellular proteolytic pathways. The results presented in this thesis have contributed to the identification of a potential treatment strategy for MCDS- the stimulation of intracellular proteolysis of mutant collagen X. CBZ is FDA approved for the use of epilepsy and bipolar disorder and has a strong safety record in humans. Therefore CBZ could be a potential treatment strategy for MCDS.
Supervisor: Boot-Handford, Raymond Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: collagen X ; chondrodysplasia ; MCDS ; ER stress