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Title: On the biomechanics of ligaments and muscles throughout the range of hip motion
Author: van Arkel, Richard
ISNI:       0000 0004 6423 1481
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2015
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At the limits of the range of hip motion, impingement, subluxation and edge loading can cause osteoarthritis in natural hips or early failure hip replacements. The aim of this PhD was to investigate the role of hip joint soft tissues throughout the range of hip motion to better understand their role in preventing (or perhaps even causing) these problematic load cases. A musculoskeletal model was used to investigate the muscular contribution to edge loading and found that in the mid-range of hip motion, the lines of action of hip muscles pointed inward from the acetabular rim and thus would stabilise the hip. However, in deep hip flexion with adduction, nearly half the muscles had unfavourable lines of action which could encourage edge loading. Conversely, in-vitro tests on nine cadaveric hips found that the hip capsular ligaments were slack in the mid-range of hip motion but tightened to restrain excessive hip rotation in positions close to the limits of hip motion. This passive restraint prevented the hip from moving into positions where the muscle lines of action were found to be unfavourable and thus could help protect the hip from edge loading. The ligaments were also found to protect the hip against impingement and dislocation. Out of the labrum, the ligamentum teres and the three capsular ligaments, it was found that the iliofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments were primary restraints to hip rotation. These two capsular ligaments should be prioritised for protection/repair during hip surgery to maintain normal hip passive restraint. Whilst this can be technically demanding, failing to preserve/restore their function may increase the risk of osteoarthritic degeneration or hip replacement failure.
Supervisor: Jeffers, Jonathan ; Amis, Andrew Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council ; Institution of Mechanical Engineers ; Wellcome Trust ; Arthritis Research UK
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral