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Title: Development of hydroentangled nonwoven structures for fashion garments
Author: Cheema, Muhammad Shahbaz
ISNI:       0000 0004 6425 1722
Awarding Body: University of Bolton
Current Institution: University of Bolton
Date of Award: 2016
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Making fabrics for apparel applications through conventional methods such as woven and knitting processes are lengthy and expensive because these processes start from ginning, spinning, weaving and knitting process. For saving the cost and quick response to the apparel market, many researchers and companies are trying to explore the non-conventional methods to produce fabrics for apparel applications by skipping some processing steps during apparel fabrics manufacturing process. For decades, nonwovens are being used as supporting materials in the clothing industry, as such, they are used as fusible interlinings and reinforcements. Since last few years, because of the advancements in the nonwoven technology and materials, innovative nonwoven fabrics have been developed with the acceptable aesthetical properties for fashion garments. The most prominent example of the nonwoven fabric for clothing is “Evolon” produced by Freudenberg Germany. The main aim of this study was to investigate the limitations in the current nonwoven fabrics used for the apparel applications and to realise the functional properties of the fabrics that are suitable for apparel applications. Fabrics for apparel applications, especially for garments, require aesthetical and mechanical properties such as drape, hand feel, flexural rigidity, moisture management, tensile characteristics, thermal characteristics and air permeability. This study aims to develop nonwoven fabrics with enhanced mechanical and aesthetical characteristics by selecting the appropriate materials and nonwoven processes and process parameters. The developed hydroentangled nonwoven fabric was comprised on Tencel® and bicomponent (PE/PET) sheath core staple fibres. In this study, two different processes were employed for the preparation of the nonwoven fabrics for apparel applications. The first process consisted of carding, needlepunching and hydroentanglement. The second process involves carding, preneedling (for tucking of fibres) and hydroentanglement. The prepared fabrics were characterised according to the British Standards (BS 3356:1990, BS 9237:1995, BS 13934-1:1999) and the results were compared with a standard plain-weave cotton woven fabric and also with commercially available nonwoven fabric (Evolon®). The developed hydroentangled nonwoven fabric produced at hydroentanglement energy of 4.44 kJ/kg, showed better drape properties owing to its flexural rigidity of 252 mg cm in MD while the corresponding commercial hydroentangled fabric displayed a value of 1340 mg cm in MD. Tensile strength of the developed hydroentangled fabric showed an approximately 200% increase than that of the commercial hydroentangled fabric. Similarly, the developed hydroentangled fabric showed higher properties in term of air permeability such as developed hydroentangled fabric exhibited 448 mm/sec and Evolon fabric exhibited 69 mm/sec at 100 Pa pressure. Absorbency properties of developed hydroentangled fabric (S14) showed almost 500% higher than the Evolon and 200% higher than the woven fabric, mainly because of the fibre morphology and fabric structure. Developed fabric (S14) showed a maximum “% loss in warmth to touch” that is 541% loss as compared with Evolon 365% and woven 226%. Thus for apparel fabrics, the work combining existing methods of nonwoven production, provides additional benefits in terms of cost, time and also helps in reducing the carbon footprint for the apparel fabric manufacture.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available