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Title: Civil War, violence and nationality from empire to nation state : the Circassians in Turkey (1918-1938)
Author: Yelbaşi, Caner
ISNI:       0000 0004 6422 1515
Awarding Body: SOAS University of London
Current Institution: SOAS, University of London
Date of Award: 2017
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This thesis argues that the transformation of Turkey from an empire to a nation state and the chaos in post-WWI Anatolia, drastically affected, first the relationship between the Circassians and the Ottoman State and subsequently that with the Turkish Republic. Although the Circassians relied on the patronage of the Ottoman State, after the Great War political authority was represented by two governments: the Ottoman Porte in Istanbul as a de jure government, and the Ankara government as the de facto one, and the loyalty of the Circassian people was contrary to traditional accounts divided between the two. In general, the ordinary Circassian people supported the loyalists in Istanbul, while the majority of the military elite and the CUP members among the Circassians backed the nationalists in Ankara. This thesis magnifies the presence of the Circassians in this crucial period (1918-1938), illustrating how the post-WWI era and the transformative period from empire to a nationstate became a painful rather than a peaceful experience for those in the country from different ethnic and religious backgrounds. Furthermore, it examines the role of the Circassians during this period, focusing on the important western and central Anatolian conflicts they participated in between 1918 and 1938. In geographical terms, the thesis most prominently examines Yozgat, Ankara, Düzce, Adapazari, Izmit, Gönen, and Manyas as these areas are where incidents broke out. The Anzavur, the Düzce-Adapazari, the Yozgat, the Çerkes Ethem incidents, the attempt to prepare for Circassian autonomy under Greek occupation, the Gönen-Manyas deportations, and the Circassian opposition to the Kemalist regime, are the central topics that the thesis illuminates in detail.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral