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Title: The investigation of electromagnetic radial force and associated vibration in permanent magnet synchronous machines
Author: Liang, Wenyi
ISNI:       0000 0004 6351 1123
Awarding Body: Cranfield University
Current Institution: Cranfield University
Date of Award: 2017
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The rising public awareness of climate change and urban air pollution has been one of the key drivers for transport electrification. Such trend drastically accelerates the quest for high-power-and-torque-density electric drive systems. The rare-earth permanent magnet synchronous machine, with its excellent steady-state and dynamic characteristics, has been the ideal candidate for these applications. Specifically, the fractional-slot and concentrated-winding configuration is widely adopted due to its distinctive merits such as short end winding, low torque pulsation, and high efficiency. The vibration and the associated acoustic noise become one of the main parasitic issues of high-performance permanent magnet synchronous drives. These undesirable features mainly arise from mechanical connection failure, imperfect assembly, torque pulsation, and electromagnetic radial and axial force density waves. The high-power-and-torque-density requirement will only be ultimately fulfilled by the reduction of both electromagnetic active material and passive support structure. This results in inflated electromagnetic force density inside the electric machine. Besides, the sti.ness of the machine parts can be compromised and the resultant natural frequencies are significantly brought down. Therefore, the vibration and acoustic noise that are associated with the electromagnetic radial and axial force density waves become a burden for large deployment of these drives. This study is mainly dedicated to the investigation of the electromagnetic radial forced density and its associated vibration and acoustic noise in radial-flux permanent magnet synchronous machines. These machines are usually powered by voltage source inverter with pulse width modulation techniques and various control strategies. Consequently, the vibration problem not only lies on the permanent magnet synchronous machine but also highly relates to its drive and controller. Generally, the electromagnetic radial force density and its relevant vibration can be divided into low-frequency and high-frequency components based on their origins. The low-frequency electromagnetic radial force density waves stem from the magnetic field components by the permanent magnets and armature reaction of fundamental and phase-belt current harmonic components, while the high-frequency ones are introduced by the interactions between the main low-frequency and sideband highfrequency magnetic field components. Both permanent magnets and armature reaction current are the main sources of magnetic field in electric machines. Various drive-level modeling techniques are first reviewed, explored, and developed to evaluate the current harmonic components of the permanent magnet synchronous machine drive. Meanwhile, a simple yet e.ective analytical model is derived to promptly estimate the sideband current harmonic components in the drive with both sinusoidal and space-vector pulse width modulation techniques. An improved analytical method is also proposed to predict the magnetic field from permanent magnets in interior permanent magnet synchronous machines. Moreover, a universal permeance model is analytically developed to obtain the corresponding armature-reaction magnetic field components. With the permanent magnet and armature-reaction magnetic field components, the main electromagnetic radial force density components can be identified and estimated based on Maxwell stress tensor theory. The stator tooth structure has large impacts on both electromagnetic radial force density components and mechanical vibration behaviors. The stator tooth modulation e.ect has been comprehensively demonstrated and explained by both finite element analysis and experimental results. Analytical models of such e.ect are developed for prompt evaluation and insightful revelation. Based on the proposed models, multi-physics approaches are proposed to accurately predict low-frequency and high-frequency electromagnetic radial vibration. Such method is quite versatile and applicable for both integral-slot and fractional-slot concentrated-winding permanent magnet synchronous machines. Comprehensive experimental results are provided to underpin the validity of the proposed models and methods. This study commences on the derivations of the drive parameters such as torque angle, modulation index, and current harmonic components from circuit perspective and further progresses to evaluate and decouple the air-gap magnetic field components from field perspective. It carries on to dwell on the analytical estimations of the main critical electromagnetic radial force density components and stator tooth modulation e.ect. Based on the stator mechanical structure, the corresponding electromagnetic radial vibration and acoustic noise can be accurately predicted. Various analytical models have been developed throughout this study to provide a systematic tool for quick and e.ective investigation of electromagnetic radial force density, the associated vibration and acoustic noise in permanent magnet synchronous machine drive. They have all been rigorously validated by finite element analysis and experimental results. Besides, this study reveals not only a universal approach for electromagnetic radial vibration analysis but also insightful correlations from both machine and drive perspectives.
Supervisor: Luk, Patrick Chi Kwong Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available