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Title: Effect of particle size on sand deposition in single-phase and multi-phase pipelines
Author: Fajemidupe, Olawale Taye
ISNI:       0000 0004 6351 1019
Awarding Body: Cranfield University
Current Institution: Cranfield University
Date of Award: 2016
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Sand production in the life of oil and gas reservoirs is inevitable, as it is co- produced with oil and gas from the reservoirs. Sand deposition in petroleum pipelines poses considerable risk to the production of oil and gas. This study investigates the effect both of sand particle diameter and concentration on minimum transport conditions in single phase and multiphase horizontal pipelines through experimental methods. This study defines the minimum transport condition (MTC) for sand grains under stratified two-phase flow regimes, as the combined minimum gas and liquid velocities at which all sand particles have sufficient energy to keep them moving in the liquid phase along the pipe. In this study, careful analyses based on experimental observations were made producing several conclusions. Based on the analysis, it was found that sand of different particle diameters and concentrations exhibits similar behaviours in single phase flow and stratified two-phase flow in horizontal pipes. Furthermore, in stratified two-phase flow, sand particles were transported within the liquid film and never observed crossing into the gas phase or transported across the gas- liquid interface; however, an increase in gas velocity tends to cause an increase in liquid velocity which in turn increases the velocity of the sand particles in stratified two-phase flow. Studies carried out on the effect of particle diameter and concentration on MTCs in both single phase (water) and stratified two-phase flows (air-water) in horizontal pipes showed that MTC increases with increases in particle diameter for the same concentration and also increases as the concentration increases for the same particle diameter. Sand sensors were used in this study for the purpose of sand monitoring and detection in single phase (water) and stratified two-phase flow in horizontal pipes. The sensors were flush-mounted at the bottom of the pipe. These sensors are commonly used to measure the thickness of a film in multiphase flow but have not been used before for monitoring and detecting sand both in single phase and multiphase flows. In this work the sensors were applied in monitoring and detecting sand in single phase and multiphase flows; they were found to be capable of monitoring and detecting sand in a conducting liquid in both single phase and stratified two-phase flows. Measured pressure gradients for sand-water flow at MTC were compared with measured pressure gradients for sand-air-water flow for the same particle diameter and concentration; it was found that there was a difference between the two pressure gradients. The pressure gradient of sand-water flow at MTC was higher than the pressure gradient of sand-air-water flow at MTC. For this reason, King et al.’s (2001) pressure gradient approach cannot be used to design wet gas pipelines. Modified concentration (v/v) correction correlation is proposed to predict sand transport at MTC in air-water. The correlation accounts for low concentration of sand (5.39E-05 to 4.90E-04v/v) in air-water flow. The proposed correlation predicted fairly when compared with the experimental results at MTC.
Supervisor: Yeung, Hoi Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available