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Title: Advanced fibre based energy storage
Author: Reid, Daniel
Awarding Body: University of Surrey
Current Institution: University of Surrey
Date of Award: 2017
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New energy storage devices are required to enable future technologies. With the rise of wearable consumer and medical devices, a suitable flexible and wearable means of storing electrical energy is required. Fibre-based devices present a possible method of achieving this aim. Fibres are inherently more flexible than their bulk counterparts, and as such can be employed to form the electrodes of flexible batteries and capacitors. They also present a facile possibility for incorporation into many fabrics and clothes, further boosting their potential for use in wearable devices. Electrically conducting fibres were produced from a dispersion of carbon nanomaterials in a room temperature ionic liquid. Coagulation of this dispersion was achieved through manual injection into aqueous solutions of xanthan gum. The limitations of this method are highlighted by very low ultimate tensile strengths of these fibres, in the order of 3 MPa, with high variation within all of the fibres. Fibres were also produced via scrolling of bi-component films containing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Chemical treatments were employed to impart water compatibility to these fibres, and their electrochemical, physical and electrical properties were analysed. Fibres were wet spun from two PEDOT:PSS sources, in several fibre diameters. The effect of chemical treatments on the fibres were investigated and compared. Short 5 min treatment times with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on 20 μm fibres produced from Clevios PH1000 were found to produce the best overall treatment. Up to a six-fold increase in electrical conductivity resulted, reaching 800 S cm-1, with up to 40 % increase in specific capacitance and no loss of mechanical strength (55 F g-1 and 150 MPa recorded). A wet spinning system to produce PEDOT:PSS fibres containing functionalised graphenes and carbon nanotubes, as well as birnessite nanotubes was subsequently developed. Manganese dioxide was also grown electrochemically on the outside of PEDOT:PSS fibres, with polypyrrole and PEDOT:PSS coating protection methods investigated. Electrochemical testing determined that birnessite nanotube-containing fibres presented the most viable option for energy storage device applications. Using the birnessite nanotube-containing fibre, fibre-based supercapacitors were fabricated and investigated. Specific capacitance values of 80 F g-1 were obtained, stable for over 1,000 cycles at 0.5 A g-1.
Supervisor: Crean, Carol Sponsor: EPSRC
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available