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Title: Optimising the therapeutic ratio of radioimmunotherapy : an investigation of the roles of chimerisation, fractionation and radiation dosimetry
Author: Violet, J. A.
Awarding Body: UCL (University College London)
Current Institution: University College London (University of London)
Date of Award: 2007
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Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a targeted form of treatment for cancer which uses tumour-associated antibodies to selectively deliver a therapeutic radionuclide to sites of disease. In lymphoma, radioimmunotherapy has proved a remarkably effective agent due to the high radiosensitivity of the tumour and its propensity to undergo apoptosis following irradiation. However, success in the treatment of the more radioresistant common solid tumours has been less successful, and for these patients RIT remains investigative. The effectiveness of RIT is limited by non-specific irradiation of normal tissues whilst antibody remains in the circulation, in particular bone marrow, and also by immunogenicity of antibody which does not allow for repeated therapy. In the first chapter I have hypothesised that lymphomas expressing the interleukin-2 receptor might be effectively treated using a radiolabeled antibody to this receptor. In a phase I/II clinical study, 131I labelled CHT-25, a chimeric antibody against the IL-2Ra chain, has shown encouraging evidence of efficacy in the 9 patients with multiply- relapsed lymphomas treated so far. In addition, use of this antibody has been associated with low immunogenicity allowing for repeated therapies to be given. In the second chapter I have hypothesised that dosimetry led, individual patient therapy, might further optimise 1311 CHT-25 treatment. To investigate this I have used marrow toxicity as a biological assay of absorbed dose and shown that simple, but individual, patient biodistribution indices correlate better with observed toxicity than the population-based dose estimates currently employed. I have proposed that adoption of individual patient dosimetry using tracer studies is worthy of further investigation for the future development of 131I- CHT-25. In the third chapter I have hypothesised that dose fractionation might improve the therapeutic ratio of RIT. This has been investigated in a pre-clinical human colorectal xenograft model in nude mice using 131I-A5B7, a murine antibody against CEA. In this setting fractionation neither reduces normal tissue toxicity nor increases the effectiveness of therapy. This thesis demonstrates, using both pre-clinical and clinical data, how the therapeutic ratio of RIT might be improved through antibody design, leading to reduced immunogenicity, dose fractionation and radiation dosimetry, and proposes how these approaches might be used to optimise the effectiveness of RIT in the clinic.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available