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Title: Investigation of anti-inflammatory effects of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA)
Author: Assaw, Suvik
ISNI:       0000 0004 6348 3548
Awarding Body: University of Nottingham
Current Institution: University of Nottingham
Date of Award: 2016
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Inflammation is a common feature of many pathological processes within the body. Although commonly perceived as being detrimental to the health of the organism, the inflammatory process is essential in the repair of damaged tissue. Following either tissue damage, infection or in some disease processes, the affected area, for example skin, swells, becomes hypersensitive to heat and pressure. These all reflect the infiltration of immune cells to the site of injury or infection from the blood stream. Activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which is expressed by both tissue resident and circulating immune cells, as well as neurons, initiates a well described intracellular signalling cascade that initiates inflammation. Ligands for this receptor include lipopolysaccharides (LPS-archetypally bacterial cell wall) as well experimental inflammogens such as carrageenan. Activation of TLR4 leads to increased expression of pro-inflammatory molecules (typically cytokines and chemokines as well as other molecules) that are secreted by TLR4 expressing cells to promote inflammation and which also sensitise primary afferent nociceptors leading to pain. Increased tissue levels of these pro-inflammatory molecules act to promote the infiltration of circulating neutrophils and monocytes to the site of injury that in turn release further pro-inflammatory mediators increasing plasma and cell recruitment (swelling) and hyperalgesia (pain). The fatty acid amide N-Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous ligand of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR[alpha]). Activation of this receptor has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the downstream consequences of PPAR[alpha] activation and how this lead to modulation of the inflammatory processes. Intra plantar subcutaneous (s.c) injection of 2% (v/v) A- carrageenan (100 pi) or saline control into the rat hind paw (Sprague Dawley, male, 200-225 g) significantly altered hind-limb weight bearing and increased paw volume consistent with hyperalgesia and inflammation.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available