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Title: Turkey red dyeing in late-19th century Glasgow : interpreting the historical process through re-creation and chemical analysis for heritage research and conservation
Author: Wertz, Julie Hodges
ISNI:       0000 0004 6353 1781
Awarding Body: University of Glasgow
Current Institution: University of Glasgow
Date of Award: 2017
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The dyed cotton textiles called Turkey red are a significant part of Scotland’s cultural heritage and the legacy of its textile manufacturing industry, and were known for their exceptional colour and fastness to light and wash fading. This thesis is a multi-disciplinary investigation of the chemistry of these unique textiles in the context of 19th c. Scotland using historical material re-creations and modern analytical chemistry, situating the dyeing process in a historical context. This research is a significant contribution toward the continued preservation of historical Turkey red textiles. Through a detailed, chemistry-focused examination of Turkey red methods published in English and French between 1785-1911, the key ingredients and steps for the process from a chemical perspective are identified (Chapter 1). The significance, chemistry, and previous research on the role of the oil (Chapter 2) and dye sources used (Chapter 3) are discussed to form the basis of the material re-creations and analysis. The oil is fundamental to and characteristic of the process, which is also noteworthy for being the first to replace a natural dye source (madder or garancine) with a coal-tar derived analogue (synthetic alizarin). Re-creations of dyed Turkey red, Turkey red oil, oiled calico, and synthetic alizarin provide experiential data and reference materials to test analyses prior to application on historical objects (Chapter 4). The analysis of Turkey red oils by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) (Chapter 5) provides information used to characterise, for the first time, how the oil and cotton fibres bond to form the basis of the Turkey red complex. This is studied using conservation-based diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and solid-state NMR (ssNMR) on replica and 19th c. pieces of Turkey red (Chapter 6). Dyes analysis of these samples by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array (UHPLC-PDA) identifies chromatographic profiles of textiles dyed with natural or synthetic dye based on synthetic chemical markers. The presence of pigments on printed Turkey red is confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) (Chapter 7).
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: DA Great Britain ; NX Arts in general ; QD Chemistry