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Title: The value of carbon capture and storage technology to the steel industry
Author: Muhammad, Abdullah Ohiani
ISNI:       0000 0004 6352 9331
Awarding Body: University of Nottingham
Current Institution: University of Nottingham
Date of Award: 2016
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The production of iron and steel is responsible for the largest percentage of industrial CO2 emissions. Therefore it is important over the coming years to implement carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology to abate these emissions and contribute to mitigating climate change. There are various CCS solutions available to assist in achieving this. These include amine absorption, adsorption, membranes and cryogenic separation. Amine absorption is the most mature and well-established of these technologies, so this method has been used in HYSYS simulation of CO2 capture from a hypothetical blast furnace. The blast furnace emits 69% of the CO2 generated from an integrated steelworks, although it is not a direct point source due to the circulation of blast furnace gas around the steelworks. Cost estimation of the blast furnace CO2 capture process was carried out using standard textbook methods. It costs $71 to capture a tonne of CO2 from a blast furnace using amine absorption technology under a 'best case scenario'. CO2 capture applied to the HISARNA ironmaking plant was investigated. HISARNA is a breakthrough ironmaking technology which inherently produces lower carbon emissions than the blast furnace. It is fed with pure oxygen and does not require pre-treatment of iron ore and coal. This process generates a flue gas of roughly 65% CO2 as contrasted with about 20% CO2 from blast furnace gas. Amine absorption capture of CO2 from HISARNA flue gas was simulated, but this technology is suboptimal due to similar amine regeneration energy costs to blast furnace capture. The only advantage of amine absorption applied here is the smaller columns due to a high CO2 concentration. Cryogenic separation is a better option for CO2 capture from HISARNA as it is akin to oxyfuel combustion in a power station. Techno-economic appraisal of the one- and two-stage flash processes was carried out. The two-stage flash process yielded better CO2 purity by one percentage point, better recovery by 0.3 percentage points as well as a 3% energy reduction, but is more expensive to build and operate, so the one-stage flash was considered optimal. This had a cost of $47/tonne CO2. The overall economics of CCS as part of Tata's Ijmuiden steelmaking operations has been investigated from a site-wide perspective, accounting for CO2 transport and storage, CO2 utilisation in the form of EOR, steelmaking operating costs and revenues, and carbon pricing. Four different carbon price predictions were studied. Cash flow was derived for six decarbonisation scenarios including 'business as usual' between the years 2020 and 2050 in order to assess the long-term economic feasibility of the different options under carbon price regimes. The higher the carbon price, the sooner Tata Steel should invest in CCS. A carbon price of over $184/t warrants immediate investment in CCS, which significantly higher than today's carbon price. Therefore CCS investment is not economically attractive in the foreseeable future. NPVs of each steelmaking scenario have been calculated. It was found that NPV is more sensitive to the steelmaking OPEX than steel sales price under high carbon price forecast, so Tata Steel should look for ways to reduce operating costs rather than increase the steel price.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (D.Eng.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available