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Title: The role of foetal/infant growth and physical activity in respiratory outcomes of prematurity
Author: Lowe, John
ISNI:       0000 0004 6349 5602
Awarding Body: Cardiff University
Current Institution: Cardiff University
Date of Award: 2017
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This thesis uses data from three cohort studies in order to investigate the effects of foetal and infant growth on respiratory disease in preterm-born children, and the onward effects of this disease on measures of physical activity. Firstly, I investigated change in foetal growth using biometry obtained from antenatal ultrasounds scans, and related this to rates of respiratory symptoms obtained from the Respiratory and Neurological Outcomes of Children Born Preterm Study. I followed-up this work by reporting the effect of accelerated weight gain during infancy on the respiratory health of preterm-born children. The second half of my thesis then used measures of lung function, as well as data on respiratory symptoms, to investigate whether the decrements associated with preterm birth manifested as reduced participation in objectively measured physical activity. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, and from the Millennium Cohort Study, were used in these analyses. My results noted that change in foetal growth trajectory (acceleration or deceleration) between the trimesters of pregnancy was associated with increased respiratory symptoms in preterm-born children. Accelerated infant weight gain was also associated with increased odds of wheeze; this was in a dose-dependent manner across the spectrum of gestation, with the effect being the greatest at ≤32 weeks’ gestation. Moreover, maternal smoking, as well as gestation, were noted to be a mediator of the relationship between infant weight gain and childhood respiratory health. A reduction in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity at 7 years of age was noted in boys who were born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation. This reduction remained after inclusion of other explanatory variables. No differences were noted at the ages of 11 and 15 years. The reduction in physical activity over the course of childhood may explain this observation.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available