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Title: Characterisation of fractions from Andrographis paniculata and Silybum marianum plant extracts that protect human cells against DNA damage
Author: Badhe, Pravin
ISNI:       0000 0004 6348 8066
Awarding Body: Brunel University London
Current Institution: Brunel University
Date of Award: 2016
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Plants have been utilized as a source of medicines since ancient times. They contain a vast range of secondary metabolites which play important roles in different diseases. The Scope of this study is to define the function of secondary metabolites from Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegh) and Silybum marianum (Milk Thistle) against DNA damage, which initiates many diseases. Sequential extraction of both plant materials was performed with different polarity solvents. Qualitative analysis was performed with Gas (GC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Primary extracts screening studies were performed against cytotoxicity, antioxidant and soluble collagen assays (Sircol dye). Further bioactivity was confirmed using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) to estimate levels of DNA damage. Fourier Transform Infrared analysis of bioactive extracts was performed to identify the functional groups present in them . Subsequently, bioactive extracts were further separated into acid, base, phenol and neutral fractions. These fractions and bioactive extracts were screened with the free radical assays to identify the scavenging activity. Chemical mapping of the bioactive fraction was performed with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Preparative-HPLC was performed to separate the compounds which were present in the bioactive fractions. MTT assay, Hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity assays were performed to screen the fractions and DNA protective activity of the bioactive fractions was confirmed with single-cell gel electrophoresis. These bioactive fractions were de-replicated with hyphenated techniques like LCMS and LCMS/MS to identify the molecular weight of the compounds and Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed to identify the accurate mass of the compounds. Sequential extraction separates the non-polar and polar compounds present in the plant material. Qualitative analysis confirmed the presence of fatty acids in the non-polar extracts of both plants using GC and the presence of standard constituents in the polar extracts of both plants using HPLC. It also helps in chemical mapping of the extracts. Acetone, Methanol1 and Methanol2 extracts from either plant are non-cytotoxic. The high antioxidant activity is observed in methanol extracts from Andrographis paniculata and in acetone/methanol2 extracts from Silybum marianum. Extracts that protect against UVA and UVB damage also increased soluble collagen production in Human Dermal Fibroblast (HDF) in culture. Primary Screening helped to select six extracts out of twelve extracts for further analysis. Comet assay confirmed DNA protective activity in Methanol1 extract of Milk thistle and Acetone, Methanol2 extracts from Kalmegh. These three extracts were further fractionated into 38 fractions out of which three fractions that are F1, F13 and F31 fractions confirm the DNA protection activity. De-replication of the bioactive fractions was performed with LC-ESI-MS/MS which confirm twenty one compounds and accurate mass of fifteen compounds was determined using Q-tof mass spectrometry.
Supervisor: Kill, I. ; Stenbeck, G. Sponsor: HEFCE
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Secondary metabolites ; Free radicals ; Anti-oxidant ; Comet assay ; De-replication