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Title: Spatio-temporal evolution of diesel sprays using high speed optical diagnostics
Author: Pos, Radboud
ISNI:       0000 0004 6348 6626
Awarding Body: Brunel University London
Current Institution: Brunel University
Date of Award: 2016
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Decades of research on compression ignition engines have led to a highly efficient combustion cycle in contemporary diesel engines. Nonetheless, the combustion process is being studied perpetually to meet both current and future emission regulations. One of the most influential parameters that impacts the combustion quality, is the fuel spray evolution during injection, and subsequent fuel-air mixture formation inside the engine cylinder. The spray evolution has been investigated to a high level of detail, and the highly complex processes of mixture formation and combustion are well-documented for diesel engines. Most of these investigations are limited to studying either research-grade injectors, or brand new production injectors. Injectors in real-world diesel engines, i.e. normal passenger cars and trucks that are used on a daily basis, are however subject to deposit formation at the tip of the injector nozzle. These deposits have the potential of altering the internal nozzle flow and fuel spray pattern, which in turn degrades combustion quality and increases engine emissions. In the work presented in this thesis the spray evolution of production injectors has been studied over a wide range of injector conditions. Common rail light-duty injectors with a usage history of up to 90 000 miles were acquired from the UK commuter car parc, and several brand new injectors were studied for comparison purposes. It is shown that the spray pattern of the injected fuel changes over the lifetime of the injector. For used injectors a reduced penetration rate was observed in the transient regime of fuel injection, during needle lift. The reduced penetration rate was often accompanied by anomalous radial expansions. Although the magnitude of the effects varied from injector to injector, the highest mileage injectors tended to produce the strongest spray deviations. For several high-mileage injectors the end of injection appeared retarded with respect to new injectors. Expulsions of liquid ligaments and droplets after the end of injection were observed from all injectors, irrespective of the mileage of the injector.
Supervisor: Megaritis, A. Sponsor: Shell Global Solutions UK ; Ganippa ; LC
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Deposit rich injectors ; Transient start of injection ; Post-injection expulsions ; Real-world injector behaviour ; Spray bulges