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Title: Towards a novel medical diagnosis system for clinical decision support system applications
Author: Kanwal, Summrina
ISNI:       0000 0004 6349 5725
Awarding Body: University of Stirling
Current Institution: University of Stirling
Date of Award: 2016
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Clinical diagnosis of chronic disease is a vital and challenging research problem which requires intensive clinical practice guidelines in order to ensure consistent and efficient patient care. Conventional medical diagnosis systems inculcate certain limitations, like complex diagnosis processes, lack of expertise, lack of well described procedures for conducting diagnoses, low computing skills, and so on. Automated clinical decision support system (CDSS) can help physicians and radiologists to overcome these challenges by combining the competency of radiologists and physicians with the capabilities of computers. CDSS depend on many techniques from the fields of image acquisition, image processing, pattern recognition, machine learning as well as optimization for medical data analysis to produce efficient diagnoses. In this dissertation, we discuss the current challenges in designing an efficient CDSS as well as a number of the latest techniques (while identifying best practices for each stage of the framework) to meet these challenges by finding informative patterns in the medical dataset, analysing them and building a descriptive model of the object of interest and thus aiding in medical diagnosis. To meet these challenges, we propose an extension of conventional clinical decision support system framework, by incorporating artificial immune network (AIN) based hyper-parameter optimization as integral part of it. We applied the conventional as well as optimized CDSS on four case studies (most of them comprise medical images) for efficient medical diagnosis and compared the results. The first key contribution is the novel application of a local energy-based shape histogram (LESH) as the feature set for the recognition of abnormalities in mammograms. We investigated the implication of this technique for the mammogram datasets of the Mammographic Image Analysis Society and INbreast. In the evaluation, regions of interest were extracted from the mammograms, their LESH features were calculated, and they were fed to support vector machine (SVM) and echo state network (ESN) classifiers. In addition, the impact of selecting a subset of LESH features based on the classification performance was also observed and benchmarked against a state-of-the-art wavelet based feature extraction method. The second key contribution is to apply the LESH technique to detect lung cancer. The JSRT Digital Image Database of chest radiographs was selected for research experimentation. Prior to LESH feature extraction, we enhanced the radiograph images using a contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) approach. Selected state-of-the-art cognitive machine learning classifiers, namely the extreme learning machine (ELM), SVM and ESN, were then applied using the LESH extracted features to enable the efficient diagnosis of a correct medical state (the existence of benign or malignant cancer) in the x-ray images. Comparative simulation results, evaluated using the classification accuracy performance measure, were further benchmarked against state-of-the-art wavelet based features, and authenticated the distinct capability of our proposed framework for enhancing the diagnosis outcome. As the third contribution, this thesis presents a novel technique for detecting breast cancer in volumetric medical images based on a three-dimensional (3D) LESH model. It is a hybrid approach, and combines the 3D LESH feature extraction technique with machine learning classifiers to detect breast cancer from MRI images. The proposed system applies CLAHE to the MRI images before extracting the 3D LESH features. Furthermore, a selected subset of features is fed to a machine learning classifier, namely the SVM, ELM or ESN, to detect abnormalities and to distinguish between different stages of abnormality. The results indicate the high performance of the proposed system. When compared with the wavelet-based feature extraction technique, statistical analysis testifies to the significance of our proposed algorithm. The fourth contribution is a novel application of the (AIN) for optimizing machine learning classification algorithms as part of CDSS. We employed our proposed technique in conjunction with selected machine learning classifiers, namely the ELM, SVM and ESN, and validated it using the benchmark medical datasets of PIMA India diabetes and BUPA liver disorders, two-dimensional (2D) medical images, namely MIAS and INbreast and JSRT chest radiographs, as well as on the three-dimensional TCGA-BRCA breast MRI dataset. The results were investigated using the classification accuracy measure and the learning time. We also compared our methodology with the benchmarked multi-objective genetic algorithm (ES)-based optimization technique. The results authenticate the potential of the AIN optimised CDSS.
Supervisor: Hussain, Amir Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Artificial Immune Network ; Clinical Decision Support Systems ; Extreme Learning Machine ; Local Energy-based Shape Histogram (LESH) ; Medical informatics ; Machine learning ; Artificial immune systems ; Medicine