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Title: Hydration and fluid balance : studies on body composition, drink formulation and ageing
Author: Rodriguez-Sanchez, Nidia
ISNI:       0000 0004 6349 4941
Awarding Body: University of Stirling
Current Institution: University of Stirling
Date of Award: 2016
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The thesis reports on 6 studies (2 of which were part of a multi-centre trial) examining hydration and fluid balance. The first study described in this thesis investigated the impact of hydration status on Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and other methods that are popular tools to determine body composition in athletes. We observed that it is important to ensure a euhydration when assessing body composition, particularly when considering changes associated with nutritional or exercise interventions. The second and third studies reported identified beverages that promote longer term fluid retention and maintenance of fluid balance in adults. We investigated the effects of 13 different commonly consumed drinks on urine output and fluid balance when ingested in a euhydrated state, with a view to establishing a beverage hydration index (BHI), i.e., the volume of urine produced after drinking expressed relative to a standard treatment (still water) for each beverage. The beverages with the highest BHI were oral rehydration solution, full fat milk and skimmed milk. BHI may be a useful measure to identify the short term hydration potential of different beverages when ingested in a euhydrated state. The fourth study aimed to systematically examine the influence of carbohydrate, sodium and caffeine content of beverages on the BHI. The BHI was greater in beverages with higher carbohydrate or higher sodium content, but not influenced by caffeine. The carbohydrate content of beverages has no effect on BHI at concentration up to 10% carbohydrate. Sodium content of beverages in concentrations of 27mmol/L and higher can improve the hydration potential of beverages. Caffeine doses in beverages up to 400mg/L do not have an impact upon diuresis when ingested in a euhydrated state. The fifth study compared net fluid balance (NFB) responses to the ingestion of commonly consumed drinks in young and older men. We observed that in young adults milk helps to maintain positive net fluid balance for longer than other drinks. In older adults this effect of milk is not observed despite similar net electrolyte balance responses. Future work should more fully explore these potential differences in fluid balance responses to drink ingestion between young and older adults. The final study investigated the hydration habits of Scottish young and older adults (+50 years old), identifying their fluid choices, volume, and preferences in relation to time of day. The results showed that 26.1% of the young females, 30.3% of the young males, 25.8% of the older females and 50.4% of the older males did not meet the European (EU) Food Safety Authority (EFSA) fluid intake recommendations. We also observed that the difference between those who met and those who did not meet the EFSA adequate intake could be attributed to differences in water ingestion, mainly during the mid-morning (after breakfast until 11 am) and during the early-afternoon (after lunch time up to 5 pm). It was concluded that these moments might be key when implementing interventions to improve hydration status especially in the older population.
Supervisor: Galloway, Stuart D. R. ; Brooks, Naomi E. Sponsor: European Hydration Institute
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: fluid balance ; rehydration ; dehydration ; euhydration ; electrolytes ; macronutrients ; gastric emptying ; intestinal absorption ; renal excretion ; urine ; kidney function ; ageing ; body composition ; fat-free soft tissue mass ; DXA ; Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ; Aging