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Title: Towards an integrated solid waste management system in Oman : a case study of private sector participation in Dhofar Governorate
Author: Al-Farsi, Ahmed Haboosh Mohamed
ISNI:       0000 0004 6351 2521
Awarding Body: University of Leeds
Current Institution: University of Leeds
Date of Award: 2016
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Waste is a problem human beings will never run away from, this is because people's daily activities constantly generate solid wastes. Urbanization and increased human migration to the cities directly translate into increased solid waste generation. The literature on the role of privatisation provides evidence of the benefits of this approach as an alternative to direct government provision of services such as solid waste management in many cities in the world. In the Sultanate of Oman, local government authorities are responsible for solid waste management services. However, over the years, institutional, financial and technical weaknesses have led to inefficiencies in the waste management system (WMS) at various levels. On the other hand, water and electricity industries have undergone Privatization in the last 15 years but not the solid waste sector. In the development of this research, it was realized that private sector participation in all aspects of the region's waste processes is not currently pragmatic. This research aims to show that private sector participation in waste management services is the way forward in order to reduce current deficiencies in the waste management chain. Several research methods and overarching methodology employed in conducting the three main tasks in this research: domestic waste characterization, investigation of level of satisfaction of the public and their opinions on current SWM services and willing to pay (WtP), and interviews with stakeholders. To factor in all the elements of an integrated solid waste management system, a survey of households and stakeholders in the Dhofar Governorate in the Sultanate of Oman was conducted. This survey included site visits, review of current solid waste management systems and the region's administrative and institutional framework and an appraisal of successful Private Sector Participation (PSP) structures and practices in Oman to develop the utmost suitable and demand-relevant PSP model based on Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) principles. Components of the waste value chain, specifically, transfer, treatment, and final disposal were found to be the foremost elements where private sector participation is initially feasible. Considering overall situation of the study region, a PSP model, based on a Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) structure, was proposed accentuating the following characteristics of ownership as key and critical features; contract term, agreement standards, dispute resolution, risk management, bidder selection process, exit strategy, minimum functional specifications, conflict resolution, and guaranteed waste volume. The legal implications of the proposed PSP model were also examined. Ultimately, the proposed PSP model incorporated institutional, social, financial, economic, technical and environmental issues for an efficient, effective, integrated, and sustainable solid waste management. One of the key findings of the research that all main stakeholders and public interviewed in the study generally agreed that privatisation has the potential for higher efficiency and provision of better quality service, which the local government cannot provide. In addition, the Dhofar Governorate, the case study area, it currently does not have any intermediate treatment or recycling facilities. Its current waste management system is limited to collection, transportation, open dumping and burning. Lack of strong law enforcement, inadequate operation, poor social awareness, and lack of adequate environmental protection characterises the current municipal solid waste management system. The identified potential avenues for private sector participation are in the transfer, treatment, and disposal of municipal or household wastes. Finally, waste content surveys should no longer be treated as an ad hoc or dispensable procedure but be regarded as regular procedures to be implemented in cities of the Sultanate. The research conclude that Oman should start examining private sector involvement in waste treatment and disposal to benefit from global advances in management systems, technologies and contractual mechanisms in order to make future ISWM system both financially and environmentally sustainable. As privatisation is first and foremost a political process, changes need to commence from the regulatory bodies. With ownership, institutional organization and operational changes have tremendous scope to improve public health and the environment in Oman. Accompanying the development of other economic policies organized by the Sultanate, the proposed scheme to introduce private sector participation into the solid waste sector aims to achieve equity, accountability, cost efficiency and environmental sustainability.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available