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Title: Clean catalytic technologies for upgrading bio-oil to produce fuels and chemicals
Author: Jahangiri, Hessam
ISNI:       0000 0004 6059 4488
Awarding Body: Cranfield University
Current Institution: Cranfield University
Date of Award: 2016
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The upgrading of bio-fuels derived from the fast pyrolysis of biomass is currently a topic of great interest due to the increasing concerns over the use of fossil fuels and the drive towards renewable feedstock. The ketonisation reaction is one method for reducing the oxygen content and acidity of derived bio-fuel. The ketonisation reaction converts carboxylic acid molecules into ketone, water and carbon dioxide. In this thesis a range of metal oxide catalysts and zeolite catalysts have been investigated for bio-oil upgrading via the ketonisation reaction and catalytic fast pyrolysis. The prepared catalysts were characterised by XRD, N2 porosimetry, XPS, pyridine DRIFTS, Raman spectroscopy, ammonia titration TPD, propylamine chemisorption TPD and CO2 titration TPD experiments. The three phases of bulk zirconia (amorphous, tetragonal and monoclinic) have been utilised in the ketonisation of acetic acid in a continuous flow reactor in this study. A series of mesoporous silica-supported zirconia catalysts (ZrO2/SBA-15) were also evaluated to investigate the effects of surface area and porosity. In addition, catalyst deactivation has been investigated on zirconia and ZrO2/SBA-15 series in ketonisation reaction. The influence of different loadings of gallium (0.2 wt.% - 11wt.%) doped ZSM-5 and Zeolite Beta and also bulk Ga2O3 was explored in the ketonisation of acetic acid in a continuous flow reactor at three reaction temperatures 350 o C, 400 o C and 450 o C. Finally, non-catalytic pyrolysis GC/MS is performed to identify the cellulose compound groups. Hence, catalytic pyrolysis GC/MS was used to evaluate the effect of gallium loadings (0.2 wt.% - 11wt.%) on ZSM-5 and Zeolite Beta in the cellulose pyrolysis reaction.
Supervisor: Fidalgo Fernandez, Beatriz ; Wilson, Karen Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available