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Title: Multi-objective optimisation methods applied to aircraft techno-economic and environmental issues
Author: Tsotskas, Christos
ISNI:       0000 0004 6059 4445
Awarding Body: Cranfield University
Current Institution: Cranfield University
Date of Award: 2016
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Engineering methods that couple multi-objective optimisation (MOO) techniques with high fidelity computational tools are expected to minimise the environmental impact of aviation while increasing the growth, with the potential to reveal innovative solutions. In order to mitigate the compromise between computational efficiency and fidelity, these methods can be accelerated by harnessing the computational efficiency of Graphic Processor Units (GPUs). The aim of the research is to develop a family of engineering methods to support research in aviation with respect to the environmental and economic aspects. In order to reveal the non-dominated trade-o_, also known as Pareto Front(PF), among conflicting objectives, a MOO algorithm, called Multi-Objective Tabu Search 2 (MOTS2), is developed, benchmarked relative to state-of-the-art methods and accelerated by using GPUs. A prototype fluid solver based on GPU is also developed, so as to simulate the mixing capability of a microreactor that could potentially be used in fuel-saving technologies in aviation. By using the aforementioned methods, optimal aircraft trajectories in terms of flight time, fuel consumption and emissions are generated, and alternative designs of a microreactor are suggested, so as to assess the trade-offs between pressure losses and the micro-mixing capability. As a key contribution to knowledge, with reference to competitive optimisers and previous cases, the capabilities of the proposed methodology are illustrated in prototype applications of aircraft trajectory optimisation (ATO) and micromixing optimisation with 2 and 3 objectives, under operational and geometrical constraints, respectively. In the short-term, ATO ought to be applied to existing aircraft. In the long-term, improving the micro-mixing capability of a microreactor is expected to enable the use of hydrogen-based fuel. This methodology is also benchmarked and assessed relative to state-of-the-art techniques in ATO and micro-mixing optimisation with known and unknown trade-offs, whereas the former could only optimise 2 objectives and the latter could not exploit the computational efficiency of GPUs. The impact of deploying on GPUs a micro-mixing _ow solver, which accelerates the generation of trade-off against a reference study, and MOTS2, which illustrates the scalability potential, is assessed. With regard to standard analytical function test cases and verification cases in MOO, MOTS2 can handle the multi-modality of the trade-o_ of ZDT4, which is a MOO benchmark function with many local optima that presents a challenge for a state-of-the-art genetic algorithm for ATO, called NSGAMO, based on case studies in the public domain. However, MOTS2 demonstrated worse performance on ZDT3, which is a MOO benchmark function with a discontinuous trade-o_, for which NSGAMO successfully captured the target PF. Comparing their overall performance, if the shape of the PF is known, MOTS2 should be preferred in problems with multi-modal trade-offs, whereas NSGAMO should be employed in discontinuous PFs. The shape of the trade-o_ between the objectives in airfoil shape optimisation, ATO and micro-mixing optimisation was continuous. The weakness of MOTS2 to sufficiently capture the discontinuous PF of ZDT3 was not critical in the studied examples … [cont.].
Supervisor: Savill, Mark ; Kipouros, Timoleon Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available