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Title: Wireless communication in vehicles
Author: Herbert, Steven John
ISNI:       0000 0004 6060 4949
Awarding Body: University of Cambridge
Current Institution: University of Cambridge
Date of Award: 2015
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There is an increasing interest in the deployment of wireless communication systems in vehicles. The motivation for this work is to provide a fundamental characterisation of the in-vehicle Electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation environment, and to demonstrate how this can be used to aid the deployment of wireless communication systems in vehicles. The fundamental characterisation of the in-vehicle EM wave propagation environment presented in this dissertation yields a number of useful outcomes. The instantaneous impulse response of the in-vehicle channel is characterised, which is presented in the form of a statistical model for arriving rays. Noticing that it is impractical to undertake a full statistical characterisation of the time-varying impulse response, the time variation of the in-vehicle channel is instead characterised as a Doppler spread. This approach provides parameters which are sufficient to perform an information theoretic analysis to lower bound the capacity of the in-vehicle channel. For typical operating conditions, it is found that the channel capacity is approximately equal to that of the same channel with perfect channel state information available at the receiver. Having established the fundamental EM wave propagation characteristics for a single in-vehicle wireless channel, the EM properties of the cavity itself are characterised. This is achieved through a thorough investigation into the analogy between vehicle cavities and reverberation chambers, specifically considering the quality factor (and hence time constant), EM isolation, and electric field uniformity of typical vehicle cavities. This approach yields the important insight that the root mean square delay spread is approximately the same for all wireless links in a typical vehicle cavity. Also, that the angular spread of energy received at any given location (away from the cavity boundaries) is approximately uniform, and that over short distances the coherence distance is well defined, and hence Multiple Input Multiple Output antenna arrays should work well in vehicles. To what extent a typical wireless system can exploit this characterisation depends on how well the parameters can be estimated by a typical wireless communication system. This is also addressed, specifically investigating the estimation of the cavity time constant, and channel time variation. It is found that both of these can be estimated well using a typical wireless sensor network system.
Supervisor: Wassell, Ian Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council ; National Physical Laboratory
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Electromagnetic wave propagation ; wireless communication ; information theory ; vehicles ; vehicular communications ; electromagnetic cavities ; reverberation chambers ; channel capacity ; signal processing ; radio ; wireless networks ; wireless sensor networks ; channel modelling ; statistical modelling