Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Adaptation of the non-human great ape lower limb in response to locomotor behaviour
Author: Wareing, Katy Ann
ISNI:       0000 0004 6059 0858
Awarding Body: University of Liverpool
Current Institution: University of Liverpool
Date of Award: 2016
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
Understanding the relationship between structure and function is crucial when trying to establish differences between closely related species; such as primates. Muscle architecture from the hindlimbs of great apes was compared, and indicated differences both within and across species. Asymmetry in the musculature of chimpanzees was found to be significant for certain muscle groups; indicating that leg preference for specific tasks may exist within this species. The comparison across the four species studied indicated subtle differences between the orangutan and the other great apes; with longer muscle fascicles, smaller physiological cross-sectional area and angles of pennation. This suggests an adaptation to slow and controlled, wider positional movements, as part of a complex arboreal environment. Muscle architectural variables did not consistently scale allometrically, however, using analysis of covariance to normalise for body mass showed significant differences at the species level. In all great apes, the lower limb tendons varied in their mechanical properties; with a hallucal flexor yielding a higher Young's modulus than tendons associated with muscles of power and balance, suggesting an adaptation to a specific functional role. The plantar aponeurosis was morphologically different across all species studied, with results indicating an adaptation to shear, multi-directional forces in the orangutan foot, possibly reflecting the use of hand assisted bipedalism in an arboreal context, and linear, anteroposterior forces in the gorilla. Overall, this thesis outlines the subtle differences present between closely related species of primates, indicating that morphological adaptations occur in response to external loading during locomotor behaviour.
Supervisor: Young, I. S. ; Jeffery, N. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral