Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Correlates of employee turnover in the complex labour market of the Niger Delta oil & gas industry : an empirical assessment
Author: Inyang, E.
ISNI:       0000 0004 6058 8870
Awarding Body: University of Liverpool
Current Institution: University of Liverpool
Date of Award: 2016
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
This thesis examines the turnover phenomenon in the oil and gas industry in the Niger Delta area with specific focus on three of the top oil and gas organizations in the area, these being The Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria, Nigerian Agip Oil Company and the Nigerian Liquefied Natural Gas Company, in order to ascertain the factors that encourage high turnover rates in these organizations as well as establish ways in which human resources practices can be improved in order to enhance retention. While several studies exist on employee turnover, these are mostly studies with a focus on Western and Asian organizations, cultures and contexts, with a lack of similar focus on developing countries, and particularly none in the oil and gas industry of the Niger Delta. Additionally, this current study incorporates the understanding of employee's personal characteristics and psychological state and how it influences the relationships between diverse factors and turnover. Over the past three to five years, there has been significant turnover of key technical staff in the organizations of interest, despite the knowledge that these organizations are high paying organizations in the area in question. These key technical staff who are the backbone of the organization also take away with them the knowledge and experience gathered over the years, leading to the organizations having to re-invest in attracting, employing and training new staff to replace the leaving staff. In addition, this loss of knowledge and lack of experience is coming at a time when it most required, i.e. at a time the industry is on a growth path. It therefore becomes important to understand all the possible factors that underpin an employee's decision to leave. Nigeria is a large country of over 170 million people, with a land area of ~924,000 square kilometres covering several geographic zones, one of which is the Niger Delta area. The Niger Delta area, situated in the southern part of the country covers ~1/8th of Nigeria's total surface area and is bounded on the East by Cameroun and to the South and West by the Atlantic Ocean. The country's main source of income is the export of crude oil, and as at 2015, it is the largest producer of oil and gas in Africa, the 7th largest producer of oil within the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), as well as the 13th largest producer of oil in the world. Oil and gas production are Nigeria's major source of earnings and government financing, with the GDP Annual Growth Rate averaging ~6% over the past three years. The oil and gas industry in Nigeria began with the exploration for oil and gas in Western Nigeria in 1908. This was further extended in 1937 to cover the whole of Nigeria, with exploration success recorded by Shell D'Arcy in the Niger Delta with the discovery of commercial volumes of oil and gas in Oloibiri in 1956. Production of oil first started in 1958 and by 1970 had risen to a peak of 2.4 million bbl/d. By 2015 oil production from Nigeria stands at ~2 million bbl/d, with several oil and gas international and independent having joined the production. While the oil and gas industry has continued to grow over the years; insecurity has gradually set in due to agitation of the Nationals for a bigger share of the oil and gas resources, making the environment a tough and challenging one not only for the organizations to operate in, but for employees to work. Having identified from the review of literature that affectivity plays an important role in the relationship between an employee's satisfaction and their decision to stay or leave, as well as understanding that some psychological and personal elements play a role in the employee's satisfaction and commitment to the organization, five main research questions have therefore been addressed in this thesis, these being: 1) What impact does positive affectivity have on affective, continuance and normative commitment? 2) What impact do affective, continuance and continuance commitment have on organizational commitment and ultimately on turnover intentions? 3) What impact does positive affectivity have on Perceived Organizational Support? 4) What impact does Perceived Organizational Support have on Pay Satisfaction and Organizational Identification? 5) Do pay satisfaction and organizational identification have an impact on turnover intentions in the Niger Delta Oil and Gas Industry? This research was therefore conducted in an exploratory manner and included an e-mail survey of employees within the participating organizations as well as learning set discussions with subject matter experts as research participants to validate the findings from the action research cycle one, i.e. the e-mail survey. This exercise enabled a better understanding of employees' reasons for either deciding to leave or stay, as well as the factors that could make them minimize or eliminate any turnover intentions. Following the discourse and observations in action research cycles one and two, the key variables found to have a strong impact on turnover intention were organizational commitment (specifically continuance commitment), perceived organizational support, pay satisfaction and positive affectivity both directly and indirectly. Several improvement strategies were identified and implemented in a pilot study mode in one of the participating organizations and was found to record the expected improvements and lower turnover intentions over a period of observation.
Supervisor: Katsikea, E. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (D.B.A.) Qualification Level: Doctoral