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Title: Maximising resource efficiency for the manufacture of lamellar based consumer products
Author: Pirisola, Isaac
ISNI:       0000 0004 6057 7530
Awarding Body: University of Liverpool
Current Institution: University of Liverpool
Date of Award: 2014
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The work disseminated within this Thesis pertain to an industrially funded study whose primary aims were to enhance the understanding of the effect of a range of process variables on the underlying microstructure of a rinse-off Hair Conditioner. The study utilised a range of analytical techniques namely; rheology, microscopy, SAXS and thermal transition. Findings herein have demonstrated that through process optimisation, more resource efficient processes are achievable which offer the possibility to significantly reduce raw materials use whilst maintaining a desired viscosity. In some cases a significant raw material reduction of 40 % could be realised (calculated on the amount of FA, CS & QUAT in the formulation) if the following steps are applied; i. Initial formation of the FA, CS & QUAT lamellar system such that the morphological makeup is predominantly a QUAT/CS rich Lβ microstructure - this is primarily a function of process temperature whilst ensuring fine state of dispersion of this product intermediate. ii. Followed by a dispersive and distributive mixing step to reduce QUATS rich Lβ microstructure domain size via a low temperature, high shear post processing operation – a function of increasing deformation rates within mixing equipment. In addition to this, the Controlled Deformation Dynamic Mixing technology was found to be an efficient device at delivering the required deformation rates to the hair conditioner product, compared to the other mixing technologies tested. Deformation rates have been characterised with respect to [1] extensional (a function of process flow-rate), [2] rotational shear rates (a function of mixer rotational speed) and more importantly [3] Mixer design (a function of equipment geometry). The trio determines the deformation rates available to process fluids during an operation, and likewise vital to any scale-up operation for geometrically similar CDDM devices. The main commercial outputs for this work therefore can be estimated using Euromonitor figures, which state that the total UK market for hair conditioner alone is £324.4 million per annum. Thus if we assume even a fraction of the raw material costs can be realised in the supply chain, saving of several million per annum are conceivable.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Q Science (General)