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Title: Cow's milk : a potential vehicle for vitamin D enrichment and fortification
Author: Weir, Ruth Roberta
ISNI:       0000 0004 6057 4700
Awarding Body: Ulster University
Current Institution: Ulster University
Date of Award: 2016
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Evidence of both low dietary intakes of vitamin D and poor vitamin D status are frequently reported within the literature, including that from nationally representative population surveys in the UK and Ireland. With this evidence in mind, it is clear that novel food-based strategies are required to help the UK population meet the recently revised recommended nutrient intakes (RNIs) for vitamin D. There is increasing evidence to support the efficacy of dairy fortification to increase vitamin D intakes. To-date, however, limited research has been conducted outside the US, Canada and Scandinavia, and pasteurised cows’ milk as a vehicle for such fortification is rarely considered in research studies, with ultra-high temperature milk and milk powder preferred. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to evaluate the potential o f cows’ milk to increase the dietary vitamin D intake and vitamin D status of consumers. An additional study was also incorporated to validate a vitamin D food frequency questionnaire, which is useful for assessing habitual intake rather than relying on 3-4 day food records. Following the development of a HPLC method to quantify vitamin D3 within milk, analysis of monthly milk samples collected from two processors in Northern Ireland over a 1-year period revealed higher vitamin D3 concentrations in whole milk than those currently listed in food composition tables. Although exposing dairy cattle (n 32) to supplemental UVB light for longer than 8-weeks may be required to significantly increase the vitamin D content of the milk naturally produced, results from a 24-week randomised controlled trial in healthy adults (n 52) demonstrated that vitamin D3 fortified milk (2pg/100g) was as effective as supplemental vitamin D3 at increasing vitamin D status. A dietary modelling scenario supported that fortification of cows’ milk with vitamin D (up to this level; 2gg/100g) could be an effective strategy to increase vitamin D intakes by approximately 2-fold across the population. Consequently, such fortification would also help a larger proportion of the population meet the new RNI, without an individual exceeding the tolerable upper limits, for vitamin D. Overall, this research has demonstrated the efficacy of fresh cows’ milk as a vehicle for either mandatory or voluntary vitamin D fortification (with or without additional dietary supplementation) to help consumers meet the revised requirements and tackle the problem of vitamin D deficiency at the population level.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available