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Title: Elucidating the metabolism of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and formation of bioactive lipid mediators in human skin
Author: Kiezel-Tsugunova, Magdalena
ISNI:       0000 0004 6056 6858
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2017
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Human skin has distinct lipid metabolism and production of bioactive lipid mediators that can be modulated by nutritional supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), of which eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids exert anti-inflammatory effects. The aims of this project were to gain better understanding of their individual mechanisms in human epidermis and dermis. HaCaT keratinocytes, 46BR.1N fibroblasts, primary human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts were treated with EPA or DHA for 72h and then sham-irradiated or exposed to 15 mJ/cm2 ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Viability was measured by the MTT assay. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin synthase-1 (mPGES-1) and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) proteins was explored by western blotting. Human skin explants (n=4 donors) were cultured for 3 or 6 days and supplemented with EPA, DHA or vehicle. Culture media were collected to evaluate tissue damage and PUFA cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase assay). Epidermal and dermal lipid profiles were assessed by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Primary keratinocytes were treated with fatty acids and various lipid mediators for 48h. Their effect was determined by the scratch assay and transepithelial electrical resistance. UVR upregulated COX-2 in HaCaT and primary epidermal keratinocytes, but did not affect mPGES-1 and 15-PGDH protein expression. UVR upregulated COX-2 and mPGES-1 in 46BR.1N fibroblasts but had no effect on 15-PGDH expression. The same UVR dose did not alter the expression of COX-2, mPGES-1 and 15-PGDH in primary dermal fibroblasts. Only EPA attenuated COX-2 expression in HaCaT and primary keratinocytes and either EPA or DHA had any effect in 46BR.1N and primary fibroblasts. Skin explants showed initial post-biopsy tissue damage. EPA and DHA supplementation augmented cellular levels of the corresponding fatty acids in both epidermis and dermis to a different extent. Increased uptake of DHA in the dermis was accompanied by reduced arachidonic acid levels. EPA treatment stimulated the production of PGE3 and various HEPE in epidermis, while DHA treatment caused high levels of HDHA species in dermis. N-3 PUFA and their derivatives delayed wound healing, cell migration and epidermal barrier permeability, while n-6 PUFA lipids showed the opposite effect. Overall, these findings suggest that EPA and DHA differently affect skin cells and skin, with EPA preference in epidermis and DHA in the dermis. These results highlight the importance of differential skin responses that could be important in skin health and disease.
Supervisor: Griffiths, Christopher ; Nicolaou, Anna Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Omega 3 fatty acid ; Omega 6 fatty acid ; Eicosapentaenoic acid ; Docosahexaenoic acid ; Arachidonic acid ; Linoleic acid ; Dihomo-?-linolenic acid ; Docosapentaenoic acid ; Prostaglandin E2 ; Hydroxy fatty acid ; Endocannabinoids ; Epidermis ; Dermis ; Keratinocyte ; Fibroblast ; Ultraviolet radiation ; Wound healing ; Cyclooxygenase 2 ; microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase ; 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase