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Title: Three-dimensional ultrasound in the management of abdominal aortic aneurysm
Author: Lowe, Christopher
ISNI:       0000 0004 6056 6292
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2016
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Objectives: Clinical implementation of 3D ultrasound (3D-US) in vascular surgery is in its infancy. The aim of this thesis was to develop novel clinical applications for 3D-US in the diagnosis and management of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods: Four principle clinical applications were investigated. 1) Intraoperative imaging – The ability of 3D-US to detect and classify endoleaks was compared with digital subtraction angiography in patients undergoing EVAR. 2) Detection and classification of endoleaks following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) – The abilityof 3D-US to accurately detect and classify endoleaks following EVAR was compared to CTA and the final multi-disciplinary team decision. 3) AAA volume measurement – measurements using magnetic and optically-tracked 3D-US were compared to CTA. 4) Biomechanical analysis – the challenges of using 3D-US to generate surface models for biomechanical simulation was explored by development of an interactive segmentation technique and comparison of paired CT and 3D-US datasets. Optimal results were used in finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamic(CFD) simulations. Results: 3D-US out-performed uniplanar angiography for the detection of endoleaks during EVAR. This approach allowed contrast-free EVAR to be performed in patients with poor renal function. 3D contrast-enhanced ultrasound was superior to CTA for endoleak detection and classification when compared with the final decision of the multi-disciplinary team. Optimal results for AAA volume measurements were gained using an optically tracked 3D-US system in EVAR surveillance. However, there remained a significant mean difference of 13.6ml between CT and 3D-US. Complete technical success of generating geometries for use in biomechanical analysis using 3D-US was only 5%. When the optimal results were used, a comparable CFD analysis under the conditions of steady, laminar and Newtonian flow was achieved. Using basic modelling assumptions in FEA, peak von Mises and principle wall stress was found to be at the same anatomical location on both the CT and 3D-US models but the 3D-US model overestimated the wall stress values by 41% and 51% respectively. Conclusions: 3D-US could be clinically implemented for intra-operative imaging and EVAR surveillance in specific cases. 3D-US volume measurement is feasible but future work should aim to improve accuracy and inter-observer reliability. Although the results of biomechanical analysis using the optimal results was encouraging and provided a proof-of-principal, there are a number of technical developments required to make this approach feasible in a larger number of patients.
Supervisor: Mccollum, Charles ; Ghosh, Jonathan Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (M.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: abdominal aortic aneurysm ; endovascular aneurysm repair ; three-dimensional ultrasound ; endoleak ; biomechanical analysis ; aneuryms volume