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Title: The influence of beta-glucans on the relationship between carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its associated microbiome
Author: Harris, Sarah Jane
ISNI:       0000 0004 6061 7600
Awarding Body: Keele University
Current Institution: Keele University
Date of Award: 2017
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Fish are in contact with microbiota from the moment of hatching. Exterior organs, i.e. skin, gills and intestinal system, are colonised by commensal bacteria populations and a symbiotic relationship is formed. The fish provides a niche and nutrients for the bacteria which stimulate development of the immune response, act as an additional barrier against invading pathogens and, within the gut, aid in digestion. β-glucans are used within aquaculture as a means of improving fish health and can be applied in various forms, e.g. via diet or injection. Whilst the application of β-glucan is performed to modulate a fish’s immune system, it has also been shown to affect the gut microbiota population at concentrations above 1% w/w within the diet which is particularly important to consider when applied orally. The effect of the commercially available β-glucan MacroGard® upon the gut of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is studied after oral application and injection. Whilst feeding with MacroGard® at 0.1% w/w within the diet does not influence the gut bacteria nor expression of bactericidal innate immune genes, injection (2mg kg-1 and 5mg kg-1) resulted in a 90% reduction in bacteria numbers in the gut after 24 hours. Injection of MacroGard® did not significantly alter the expression of CRP, iNOS, bf/C2, IL-1β, ApoA1, HAMP1, LEAP2 and Muc2 within the gut however MSS1, a synthesised β-glucan, significantly increased the gene expression of iNOS, CRP and Muc2. 0.1% MacroGard® in the diet was, however, capable of influencing bacterial species diversity when injection was also performed. This revealed a high proportion of Alphaproteobacteria, which are typically associated with plants rather than gut systems, and corresponded with a reduction in potential pathogenic bacteria. This showed combining injection and oral application of MacroGard® together is capable of influencing the gut microbiota population within a 2 week period.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: QL Zoology