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Title: The implications and trade-offs of near-port ship emissions reduction policies
Author: Zis, Thalis
ISNI:       0000 0004 6061 5330
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2016
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Maritime shipping is considered the most efficient mode of transport in economic and environmental terms. However, its impacts on climate change through greenhouse gas emissions and on human health from air pollutants released near residential centres cannot be ignored. Over the last decades, regulatory bodies have been developing policies that seek to further improve the sector's environmental performance and at the same time new technologies improve the efficiency of vessels. Operational practices of shipliners and port authority initiatives are also relieving the sector's impacts. While there has been significant research on the environmental impacts of maritime transport, there has been relatively little work focusing on the effects of maritime activity in the proximity and at ports. This thesis presents a transferable framework that allows the estimation of emissions pollutant generation near the port focusing on CO2, SO2, NOx and BC emissions. The most relevant emissions reduction actions are considered and their effects on the environmental footprint of the port are modelled. The thesis emphasizes on the implementation of speed reduction programmes near the port, use of cold ironing at berth, and the effects of fuel quality regulation, considering the perspectives of the port authority, and the ship operator. The thesis considers the emerging environmental and economic trade-offs due to the different emissions reduction actions. A non-linear convex optimization model is formulated that minimizes fuel consumption in a sequence of port calls where in some areas speed limits or fuel regulations are in place. The results show that there is no universal port policy that can simultaneously minimize the environmental impact of all ships without economic or environmental penalties. This indicates that there is great scope of improvement in existing policies, and that regulators will need to decide what their priorities should be in improving the system. The achievements of this thesis can be beneficial to policy makers, port authorities, and shipping companies that wish to improve their environmental performance without sustaining environmental and economic penalties to do so.
Supervisor: Bell, Michael ; Ochieng, Washington ; Angeloudis, Panagiotis Sponsor: Government of Greece
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral