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Title: The foreign policy of Lord Malmesbury, 1858-9
Author: Hearder, H.
Awarding Body: University of London
Current Institution: Royal Holloway, University of London
Date of Award: 1954
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Lord Malmesbury was appointed Foreign Secretary on 26 February, 1858, in Lord Derby's Second Administration. In March he successfully ended the bitter quarrel with France which had resulted from Orsini's attempted assassination of Napoleon. Later in the year he secured the release of the two English engineers of the "Cagliari" from a Neapolitan prison. His attempt to mediate between France and Portugal in the dispute over the "Charles et Georges" was less successful. In the East Malmesbury upheld the Treaty of 1856. Friction developed with France over the war in Montenegro, but the murder of the English and French Consuls at Jeddah led to Anglo-French co-operation in securing retribution. Crises over Serbia and the Danube placed Malmesbury on the side of France against Austria, but in the larger question of the Principalities, he contributed to an avoidance of a Franco-Austrian break. His most important sphere of action was Italy. From January to May, 1859, maintained constant diplomatic pressure on all the Powers to preserve the peace. While upholding the Treaty of 1815, he hoped to settle the Italian Question by gradual reforms, and by inducing Austria to make concessions. He sent Lord Cowley on a mediating mission to Vienna in March, and in April occupied a central position in the negotiations for a Congress to consider the affairs of Italy. But events moved too quickly for him. The rising tempo of the "Risorgimento", Cavour's conspiracies, and the uncompromising behaviour of Austria, led to a Franco-Austrian War in May. In the war Malmesbury maintained an impartial neutrality. He helped to localize hostilities by advising the German States not to support Austria. Before the Peace of Villafranca the Derby Government had resigned, on 18 June.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: European History