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Title: Sago starch : behaviour and manufacture of expanded iron-fortified extrudates
Author: Fitriani, Shanti
ISNI:       0000 0004 6060 9598
Awarding Body: University of Nottingham
Current Institution: University of Nottingham
Date of Award: 2016
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Sago starch is extracted from the trunk of sago palm (Metroxylon spp.), which is found throughout South East Asia. In Indonesia sago is considered an underutilised crop and moreover Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA) is prevalent among particularly women and children. Creation of a ready to eat product from sago, which was fortified with iron, would address issues of food security both in terms of nutrition and as a non-imported carbohydrate source. With this aim studies for the manufacture of a thermomechanical directly expanded snack product using a commercial source of sago starch were conducted. Composition and properties of sago starch were analysed and compared with rice and cassava. Sago starch differed in several aspects from the two other starches widely processed in Asia. Sago starch had large granules, had the highest amylose levels and gelatinisation temperature (76 °C). X-ray diffraction suggested an A-type packing for all samples, including the sago where literature suggest a C-type ordering. Conversion of the starches (30% moisture) and their flow were studied in a capillary rheometer. A stable extruded product was achieved, but it did not expand. Capillary rheometer data showed pseudoplastic behaviour of the moistened sago starch. With increasing temperature viscosity decreased and no impact of the presence of iron (ferrous sulphate heptahydrate 800 ppm) on the flow behaviour was found, but the inclusion of iron made the extrudates brown in colour. The losses of crystallinity were measured on the extrudates from the rheometer. Levels of order loss were predicted from the state diagram and by comparison with the DSC enthalpy changes for uncooked sago at higher moisture contents. When processed at 70 °C the samples showed more amorphous material than anticipated. When processed at 100 °C still 30% of the order remained. This indicated that shear and moisture levels are critical in the processing of the starch. Thermomechanical extrusion was carried out on a twin screw pilot scale machine (Thermo Fisher, Prism). The screw and die configuration and feed rate for the sago starch (8 kg/h) were fixed. The impact of variable processing parameters of water feed rate (16.5 to 25% wwb), screw speed (200, 300 and 400 rpm) and die temperature (120, 140 and 160 °C) on the physical and physicochemical properties of extruded sago starch were investigated. At the lower water feed rates expansion occurred as the product left the extruder to form a stable extrudate with multiple air cells, which gave a crispy texture. The specific mechanical energies needed to create the expanded product were high at 400-500Whr/kg. The properties of the extrudates were more affected by water feed rate than by alterations in screw speed or die temperature. In order to reduce discolorations, iron-fortified sago starch extrudates were made using iron and ascorbic acid (1:6 ratio). The presence of additives at low water feed rate had no detrimental impact on the extrudates. The recommended extrusion parameters for the manufacture of an extruded sago starch product would be: feed rate of 8 kg/h, screw speed of 300 rpm, die temperature at 140 °C, and water feed rate at 4 mL/min (equivalent to 16.5% wwb), and it is possible that machine settings that produce even higher SME values may allow a more expanded product. From this work it appears that an iron fortified directly expanded sago product could be manufactured. Its nutritional properties and commercial applicability would need to be ascertained.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: SB Plant culture ; TP 368 Food processing and manufacture