Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Gaussian processes for modeling of facial expressions
Author: Eleftheriadis, Stefanos
ISNI:       0000 0004 6059 3047
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2017
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
Automated analysis of facial expressions has been gaining significant attention over the past years. This stems from the fact that it constitutes the primal step toward developing some of the next-generation computer technologies that can make an impact in many domains, ranging from medical imaging and health assessment to marketing and education. No matter the target application, the need to deploy systems under demanding, real-world conditions that can generalize well across the population is urgent. Hence, careful consideration of numerous factors has to be taken prior to designing such a system. The work presented in this thesis focuses on tackling two important problems in automated analysis of facial expressions: (i) view-invariant facial expression analysis; (ii) modeling of the structural patterns in the face, in terms of well coordinated facial muscle movements. Driven by the necessity for efficient and accurate inference mechanisms we explore machine learning techniques based on the probabilistic framework of Gaussian processes (GPs). Our ultimate goal is to design powerful models that can efficiently handle imagery with spontaneously displayed facial expressions, and explain in detail the complex configurations behind the human face in real-world situations. To effectively decouple the head pose and expression in the presence of large out-of-plane head rotations we introduce a manifold learning approach based on multi-view learning strategies. Contrary to the majority of existing methods that typically treat the numerous poses as individual problems, in this model we first learn a discriminative manifold shared by multiple views of a facial expression. Subsequently, we perform facial expression classification in the expression manifold. Hence, the pose normalization problem is solved by aligning the facial expressions from different poses in a common latent space. We demonstrate that the recovered manifold can efficiently generalize to various poses and expressions even from a small amount of training data, while also being largely robust to corrupted image features due to illumination variations. State-of-the-art performance is achieved in the task of facial expression classification of basic emotions. The methods that we propose for learning the structure in the configuration of the muscle movements represent some of the first attempts in the field of analysis and intensity estimation of facial expressions. In these models, we extend our multi-view approach to exploit relationships not only in the input features but also in the multi-output labels. The structure of the outputs is imposed into the recovered manifold either from heuristically defined hard constraints, or in an auto-encoded manner, where the structure is learned automatically from the input data. The resulting models are proven to be robust to data with imbalanced expression categories, due to our proposed Bayesian learning of the target manifold. We also propose a novel regression approach based on product of GP experts where we take into account people's individual expressiveness in order to adapt the learned models on each subject. We demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed models on the task of facial expression recognition and intensity estimation.
Supervisor: Pantic, Maja Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral