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Title: Epidemiology and control of Fasciola, other trematode and haemoparasitic infections of cattle in Kwara State, North-central Nigeria
Author: Elelu, Nusirat
ISNI:       0000 0004 6057 7493
Awarding Body: University of Bristol
Current Institution: University of Bristol
Date of Award: 2016
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A comprehensive study of trematodes and haemoparasitic infections of cattle was conducted in Edu Local Government Area of Kwara State, North-central Nigeria. Initially, participatory epidemiology methods including focus groups, disease impact scoring and seasonal calendar were used to rank the most important cattle diseases identified by Fulani pastoralists, these being (Fulani names in parentheses): leptospirosis (Gabi-Gabi), FMD (Chabo), fasciolosis, trypanosomiasis (Samore), haematuria (Taki), tick infestation (Duce), brucellosis (Kwanejie) and ear infection (Kune). Coprological study carried out in 686 cattle from 11 villages revealed prevalences of Fasciola gigantica 74.9%, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 72.0-79.0%; paramphistomes 16.1%, 95%CI: 13.0-19.0%, Dicrocoelium hospes 7.3%, 95%CI: 5.0-9.0%; and Schistosoma bovis 1.2%, 95%CI: 0.0-2.0%. Risk factor analysis showed that adult cattle were more likely to be infected with F. gigantica than weaners, odds ratio (OR) 1.94, 95%CI: 1.19-3.16. Cattle belonging to household heads aged 40-59 years were more likely to be infected with paramphistomes than those belonging to other age groups, OR 2.0, 95%CI: 1.0-3.7. Cattle herd size ≥100 ,were more likely infected with D. hospes than those from smaller herds (OR 7.0; CI: 2.9-16.6). This study revealed high prevalence of infection with F. gigantica in Kwara State and the risk factors identified could assist in tailoring control strategies for various trematode infections to particular groups of farmers and cattle. Fasciola specimens from Ipata central abattoir, Kwara state were investigated by phylogenetic analysis or ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer regions and mitochondrial COl gene. All were shown to belong to F. gigantica cluster with no evidence of hybridization with F. hepatica. There were close similarities between F. gigantica isolates from Nigeria and those from other African countries. Real-time PCR was used to demonstrate Anaplasma marginaZe in cattle at a prevalence of 75.9%, (95% CI: 71.0-81.0%), higher than that previously reported in Nigeria. Surprisingly, Babesia bigemina was not detected in cattle using real-time PCR. Risk factor analysis revealed that A. marginale prevalence varied significantly among villages and between cattle age groups while sex of cattle did not have any significant effect. Real-time PCR is useful for screening animals with low parasitaemia and is able to detect current infection. This type of study is necessary to assess the occurrence of tick borne diseases in Kwara State and would also help address the risk of disease to exotic breeds introduced into endemic areas, and alert to precautions needed for diseases prevention.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available