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Title: The discursive construction of liminality in Turkey's nation brand : representations of liminality in tourism as expressions of Turkish foreign policy
Author: Tecmen, Ayse
ISNI:       0000 0004 5994 900X
Awarding Body: University of Bristol
Current Institution: University of Bristol
Date of Award: 2016
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This research investigates the discursive construction of liminality in Turkey's Justice and Development Party's (Adalet ve Kalkznma Partisi- AK Party) nation branding efforts between 2007 and 2013. Liminality is the interstructural stage of transitions in which the subject remains outside the defined social structures and practices, and thus entering "a realm of pure possibility" (Turner 1967: 97). Liminality in AK Party's nation branding originates in foreign policy, which supplements existing political and economic ties to Europe with a proactive regional policy that revives Turkey's Islamic and Ottoman culture and heritage. In tum, Turkey's communications with foreign publics increasingly deploy Turkey' s European and Middle-Eastern characteristics. Brand Turkey is constructed as "neither this nor that and yet both" (Turner 1967: 99), which allows the government to formulate representations of liminality that are simultaneously distinctive and yet familiar to external audiences. Tourism promotion is prominent in Turkey' s nation branding efforts because it is a channel for communications with external audiences as well as an asset in economic development. Because Brand Turkey and its representations are discursive constructs, I employ a discourse analytical approach. Empirically, I deconstruct nation branding projects, such as TURQUALITY, and Olympics and Exposition bids, and Turkish tourism promotion posters, and films, to illustrate that Turkey's nation brand identity is liminal. Three modes construct representations of liminality, hybridity, juxtaposition and inbetweenness. Hybridity constructs Turkey as "both Eastern and Western", which is the conventional mode of liminality. Juxtaposition constructs "Turkey as "either Western or Eastern" depending on the audience's existing subject position. Inbetweenness, Turkey as "neither Western nor Eastern" is rooted in AK Party's formulation of Turkey as an "Anatolia-based civilisation" with unique political and cultural characteristics. In these modes, culture and heritage, and religion, rooted in Turkey's distinct geographic, history, and political (as both secular and Islamic) identity, are nodal points.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available