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Title: Institutional arrangements for resource recovery and reuse in the wastewater sector
Author: Evans, Alexandra E. V.
ISNI:       0000 0004 5990 0070
Awarding Body: Loughborough University
Current Institution: Loughborough University
Date of Award: 2016
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As populations grow and urban centres expand, meeting water demand and wastewater management requirements will become increasingly difficult. Goal 6 of the Sustainable Development Goals is to: 'Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all'. Part of the approach to achieving this will be reusing wastewater and will require a greater understanding of the institutional arrangements that support or obstruct reuse. This research was designed to achieve this and aimed to develop a set of factors that investors could use to assess the institutional feasibility of reuse in a given setting. The methodology combined a case study approach, focusing on wastewater systems in Bangalore, India and Hanoi, Vietnam, with triangle analysis to assess: the content of policies and laws; the structures (formal and informal) to implement laws and reuse projects; and the culture around acceptance and engagement in reuse. The reuse practices observed in Bangalore were treatment and use within apartments, centralized treatment and sale to industries, use in agriculture after natural attenuation, groundwater recharge and lake regeneration. In Hanoi the only reuse was indirect use from rivers feeding fish ponds and fields, although formal treatment and use is planned. Critically, both cities have environmental and water resources policies and laws that advocate reuse, as well as related local legislation. However, support for reuse is not reciprocated in industrial, agricultural or fisheries law, the result being that reuse does not always take place as planned. Legislation is required along the whole sanitation chain to the point of wastewater use. Structures to implement reuse are also vital. In Bangalore the water board has initiated reuse projects and established the New Initiatives Division but resources are a limiting factor. Effective institutions include expertise, manpower and financing mechanisms, which are lacking in both cities. The environment agency is also engaged in reuse though legislation on recycling in residential and commercial complexes but guidance for users is inadequate, expectations are perceived to be excessive and monitoring is almost impossible. The driver for reuse is increasingly the benefits observed by users. In the case of apartments this is a reliable water source and reduced costs of water supply. As a result, a private sector in wastewater treatment is becoming established. The active civil society and strong, independent media are instrumental in providing information to potential users and holding authorities to account in Bangalore. Their absence in Hanoi is notable. In summary, institutional elements to be considered are: supportive legislation across all sectors; details of acceptable reuse, deterrents and inducements; budget allocation; structures to enable reuse; strong civil society, NGOs, courts, media and universities providing evidence of suitability and safety; donors and finance mechanisms; and stakeholders willing to use the products. Encumbrances are inconsistent or uncoordinated legislation, lack of cooperation and insufficient benefit sharing or perceptions of benefits along the reuse chain.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Institutions ; Stakeholders ; Triangle analysis ; Wastewater use ; Recycling ; Water reuse ; Stakeholders ; Policies ; Legislation ; Bangalore ; Hanoi