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Title: Synthesis and reactivity of scandium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes
Author: Marr, Isobel Helen
ISNI:       0000 0004 5991 1618
Awarding Body: University of Edinburgh
Current Institution: University of Edinburgh
Date of Award: 2014
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Chapter one introduces N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and discusses their use as ligands for rare earth metal complexes, with particular emphasis upon compounds synthesised from 2009 until the present day. Chapter two details the synthesis and characterisation of the homoleptic scandium-NHC complex [Sc(L)3] (L = [OCMe2CH2(1-C{NCHCHNiPr})]). Reactions of [Sc(L)3] with boranes, CO2 and CS2 are described which exploit the relative lability of the Sc–Ccarbene bond and allow formation of [Sc(L)2(OCMe2CH2(1-B'C{NCHCHNiPr}))] (B' = 9-BBN, BPh3, B(C6F5)3, BH3), [Sc(OCMe2CH2(1-O2CC{NCHCHNiPr})3]n, [Sc(L)2(OCMe2CH2 (1-S2CC{NCHCHNiPr})] and [Sc(L)(OCMe2CH2(1-S2CC{NCHCHNiPr})2]2. The chapter also discusses the reactivity of [Sc(L)3] towards substrates containing acidic C–H and N–H bonds and substrates containing polar E–X bonds (where E = C, Si, B, P and X = Cl, I). Chapter three describes the synthesis and characterisation of the NHC substituted scandium benzyl complexes [Sc(Bn)2(L)]2 and [Sc(Bn)(L)2], and the attempted synthesis of NHC substituted scandium aminobenzyl complexes. The reactivity of [Sc(Bn)2(L)]2 with RX substrates (R = alkyl) is discussed in detail; depending on the nature of the alkyl group, these reactions can allow formation of R–Bn , the result of carbon-carbon coupling. The complex [Sc(Bn)(L)Cl]2 has been isolated from these reactions and is structurally characterised. The reactivity of [Sc(Bn)2(L)]2 towards C–H bonds is explored and attempts to prepare NHC substituted scandium hydrides are described. Comparisons of the relative stability and reactivity of [Sc(Bn)2(L)]2 and [Sc(Bn)3(thf)3] are drawn. Chapter four documents the synthesis and characterisation of [Sc(Odtbp)2(L)] (Odtbp = 2,6-di-tert-butylphenoxide), [Sc(Odtbp)(L)2], and the samarium analogue [Sm(Odtbp)(L)2]. The reactivity of these complexes towards various small molecules is described. The chapter also details attempts to prepare the cationic scandium complexes [Sc(L)2][Bort] (Bort = bis[3,3',5,5'-tetra-(tert-butyl)-2,2-diphenolato]borate) and [Sc(L)2][B(Ph)4]. Chapter five provides overall conclusions to the work presented in this thesis. Chapter six contains all experimental and characterising data for the complexes and reactions detailed in this work.
Supervisor: Arnold, Polly ; Pulham, Colin Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: scandium ; N-heterocyclic carbene ; NHC