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Title: Exploring the implicit and explicit attitudes of health care professionals' towards people living with HIV in a low HIV-prevalence society ; Psychological interventions for children and young people affected by armed conflict or political violence : a systematic literature review
Author: O'Sullivan, Clodagh Marie
ISNI:       0000 0004 5992 6721
Awarding Body: Queen's University Belfast
Current Institution: Queen's University Belfast
Date of Award: 2015
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This study aimed to 1) examine implicit and explicit attitudes amongst health professionals in Northern-Ireland, and 2) explore the relationship between attitudes and HIV-knowledge, contact with PLWH, empathy and avoidance. Participants were 148 health professionals from the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust. Negative implicit and explicit HIV attitudes were identified on the attribute of blame when compared to Chlamydia but not Leukaemia. An association between lower empathy and higher explicit HIV-blame attitudes were identified. Higher levels of avoidance towards PLWH were associated with increased HIV-blame. Higher religiosity was associated with higher explicit HIV-blame attitudes, specifically when compared to Chlamydia. These results indicate that research on determinants of HIV stigma might be too limited if only false beliefs about the transmission of the disease, contact, and religiosity are considered. Future research in Northern Ireland will need to expand away from the factors commonly examined in attitudes research, to include more contemporary ideas such as those proposed The Integrated Threat Model. This review provides a summary of the evidence for the effectiveness of such psychological interventions. Standard review methodology was followed to identify psychological interventions addressing psychological and psychosocial function among conflict-affected youths. Where possible studies were subjected to meta-analyses, the remaining studies were included in a narrative synthesis. Comprehensive assessment of intervention effectiveness was limited primarily due to heterogeneity of studies. Eight studies were concerned with non-clinical populations, and nine with clinical populations. Group Trauma Focused-Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is effective for reducing symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, depression and improving prosocial behaviour amongst clinical cohorts. Evidence for effectiveness within non-clinical groups is limited. Despite a large number of high quality studies, lack replication and high levels of heterogeneity have resulted in a limited evidence-based to inform practice.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (D.Clin.Psych.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available