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Title: The interplay of body composition, nutrition and inflammation
Author: Cronin, Barbara Ellen
ISNI:       0000 0004 5990 3626
Awarding Body: Ulster University
Current Institution: Ulster University
Date of Award: 2015
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Both the quantity and distribution of body fat are associated with the expression of inflammatory markers. This thesis aims to examine (1) associations between measures of body composition (anthropometric and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) with markers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, (2) the efficacy of body composition indices as predictors of inflammation in young adults and postmenopausal women, (3) the effects of modest weight change on markers of inflammation over 24 months in postmenopausal women and (4) the effects of a calcium rich marine-derived multi-mineral supplement administered alone or with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in postmenopausal women over 24 months. Results demonstrate that anthropometric measures of body composition are similarly associated with markers of inflammation in comparison to DXA and therefore may be reliable and clinically useful in the prediction of disease risk in young adults and postmenopausal women. Although sex differences were apparent, similar strong associations between leptin and body composition measures were evident among both men and women, highlighting a potential role for this marker in the assessment of inflammatory disease risk. Additionally, modest weight change in postmenopausal women has significant effects on pro-inflammatory marker concentrations over 24 months which may positively or negatively impact inflammatory status. With age, women experience changes in body composition, inflammation and bone health. Calcium supplements are routinely taken, particularly by postmenopausal women to meet the daily required intake and prevent osteoporosis. However, high calcium intakes via calcium containing supplements have been implicated as a risk factor for CVD. This thesis demonstrates that supplementation with a calcium rich marine-derived multi-mineral supplement alone or with scFOS, a prebiotic that enhances intestinal absorption, lowered low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol concentrations in postmenopausal women over 24 months and had no effect on body composition, blood pressure or systemic inflammation. Overall, this thesis demonstrates the interplay between body composition, nutrition and inflammation in young adults and postmenopausal women.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available