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Title: Origin of porosity in cast metals
Author: Campbell, John
Awarding Body: University of Birmingham
Current Institution: University of Birmingham
Date of Award: 1967
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A literature survey on the whole field of pore formation is assembled into the form of a general theory of the causes of porosity in castings. The conventionally accepted modes of feeding are assessed: liquid-, mass-, and interdendritic- feeding; and two further mechanisms are proposed: burst- and solid-feeding. The latter is investigated theoretically using various flow models: elastic-plastic, viscous, creep and Bingham flow. A new theory is proposed for the origin of layer porosity in castings. Experimental work on a wide variety of alloys: Al-Cu, Fe-C, Complex Ni- and Co-base alloys, cast both in air and in vacuum are investigated for the effect of section thickness, taper, and mould and metal temperatures. The formation of porosity appears to change from a non-nucleation to a nucleation mechanism as section thickness increases. A new method of interpreting radiographs based upon a longitudinal line count reveals that solid feeding becomes important in reducing porosity at high mould temperatures. Experiments on the effect of composition of an alloy on porosity cast doubt on the widely accepted theory that the presence of non-equilibrium eutectic liquid reduces porosity, but indicate that the non-equilibrium freezing range of the alloy may be the critical parameter. The effect of pressure on porosity is investigated utilising pressures below atmospheric; the results are inadequately explained by current theories and are discussed in terms of the nucleation and growth of pores; the effect would also appear to have considerable industrial potential for reducing porosity in vacuum cast components.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: TN Mining engineering. Metallurgy