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Title: Reforming international wildlife trade interventions in CITES
Author: Challender, Daniel
ISNI:       0000 0004 5372 0132
Awarding Body: University of Kent
Current Institution: University of Kent
Date of Award: 2014
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International trade in wildlife is a major threat to biodiversity conservation. CITES, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, which entered into force in 1975, is the primary mechanism for maintaining sustainability in international wildlife trade. However, CITES boasts few conservation successes and its regulatory approach is proving ineffective in many cases. In this thesis I recommend reforms to international wildlife trade interventions both within and beyond CITES, which would enable the Convention to more effectively govern trade and lead to the improved conservation status of trade-threatened species. In chapter two, I review typical and atypical interventions in CITES and critically evaluate the effectiveness of the Convention. I argue that trade measures need to go beyond regulation and should be multi-faceted, reflecting the socio-economic, cultural and economic complexity of wildlife trade and I outline key areas of research to inform these interventions. In chapter three I focus on high-value wildlife and argue that a regulatory response to poaching for international trade is an inadequate long-term conservation strategy and interventions should involve incentivizing local communities to conserve wildlife, the re-examination of sustainable off-take mechanisms, including regulated trade, ranching, and wildlife farming, and demand management measures. In chapter four, I critically evaluate CITES from an economic perspective through a case study on the trade in pangolins (Pholidota: Manidae) in Asia. I assert that to more effectively manage trade CITES should seek to understand markets and the impact of trade controls and address demand for wildlife as well as supply. In chapter five, I investigate the influence of non-state actors on decisions to amend the CITES Appendices. I find that they are successful in influencing decision-making, but they also claim unwarranted campaign victories and seek to abuse CITES, and Parties should exercise caution when interpreting non-state actor policy advice. In chapter six I discuss the contribution this thesis makes to conservation science and implications for governing wildlife trade before drawing final conclusions.
Supervisor: MacMillan, Douglas Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation ; GN Anthropology