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Title: Control of distributed generation and storage : operation and planning perspectives
Author: Alnaser, Sahban Wa'el Saeed
ISNI:       0000 0004 5369 486X
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2015
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Transition towards low-carbon energy systems requires an increase in the volume of renewable Distributed Generation (DG), particularly wind and photovoltaic, connected to distribution networks. To facilitate the connection of renewable DG without the need for expensive and time-consuming network reinforcements, distribution networks should move from passive to active methods of operation, whereby technical network constraints are actively managed in real time. This requires the deployment of control solutions that manage network constraints and, crucially, ensure adequate levels of energy curtailment from DG plants by using other controllable elements to solve network issues rather than resorting to generation curtailment only. This thesis proposes a deterministic distribution Network Management System (NMS) to facilitate the connections of renewable DG plants (specifically wind) by actively managing network voltages and congestion in real time through the optimal control of on-load tap changers (OLTCs), DG power factor and, then, generation curtailment as a last resort. The set points for the controllable elements are found using an AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF). The proposed NMS considers the realistic modelling of control by adopting one-minute resolution time-series data. To decrease the volumes of control actions from DG plants and OLTCs, the proposed approach departs from multi-second control cycles to multi-minute control cycles. To achieve this, the decision-making algorithm is further improved into a risk-based one to handle the uncertainties in wind power throughout the multi-minute control cycles. The performance of the deterministic and the risk-based NMS are compared using a 33 kV UK distribution network for different control cycles. The results show that the risk-based approach can effectively manage network constraints better than the deterministic approach, particularly for multi-minute control cycles, reducing also the number of control actions but at the expense of higher levels of curtailment. This thesis also proposes energy storage sizing framework to find the minimum power rating and energy capacity of multiple storage facilities to reduce curtailment from DG plants. A two-stage iterative process is adopted in this framework. The first stage uses a multi-period AC OPF across the studied horizon to obtain initial storage sizes considering hourly wind and load profiles. The second stage adopts a high granularity minute-by-minute control driven by a mono-period bi-level AC OPF to tune the first-stage storage sizes according to the actual curtailment. The application of the proposed planning framework to a 33 kV UK distribution network demonstrates the importance of embedding real-time control aspects into the planning framework so as to accurately size storage facilities. By using reactive power capabilities of storage facilities it is possible to reduce storage sizes. The combined active management of OLTCs and power factor of DG plants resulted in the most significant benefits in terms of the required storage sizes.
Supervisor: Ochoa, Luis Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Active network management ; distributed generation. ; energy storage ; generation curtailment ; optimal power flow ; wind power ; uncertainty