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Title: North western Pakistani Pashtun perspectives on the educational achievement of their children in England
Author: Bokhari, Sophia
ISNI:       0000 0004 5371 3741
Awarding Body: University of Worcester
Current Institution: University of Worcester
Date of Award: 2015
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This thesis provides an analysis based on a qualitative modified Grounded Theory approach of the perceptions of people belonging to the North Western Pakistani Pashtun population residing in England, regarding the educational achievement of their children. The research involved participants across five sites: Birmingham, Bradford, East London, Oldham and Manchester. All participants originated from the village and tribal areas of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region of Pakistan. Names have been anonymised, and details that might enable identification omitted. Fieldwork took place between 2012 and 2014. Research techniques used were qualitative questionnaires and interviews. The research aimed to unpick the extent to which ethnicity promoted or hindered educational achievement within this selected population. In addition, it also highlighted the inextricable link, as perceived by the population, between their educational achievement and their combined ethnicity, cultural, economic and social capital. Initial and focused coding and a relational analysis of a situational map were undertaken, in line with a modified Grounded Theory methodology. The study identifies one core category: 'educational apathy', as deep set, and its properties and dimensions are thoroughly explored in relation to the selected population. A further two categories: 'gender inequality' and 'the role of Islam' emerge as issues that also need to be addressed for increased educational achievement. This study supplies a historical context for North-Western Pakistani Pashtuns and their identity as an ethnic group. Reasons are given for the avoidance of the term 'Pathan'. The thesis describes migration patterns to England and the socialisation of theses Pashtuns as a migrant population. Official data on this selected population in England is scarce so demographic indications are taken from official school censuses (2007-2012) and national censuses (1991, 2001 and 2011) on language, free school meals and qualifications. In cases where there was an absence of data, data were gleaned for the broader 'Pakistani' population. The thesis evidences the relative income poverty within North-Western Pakistani Pashtun families living in inner city ghettoised areas of England, by relating their experiences of social class and socio-economic status to their negative perceptions of educational achievement. There is little literature nationally or internationally on this selected population, so this thesis offers new knowledge. This particular ethnic group is 'hard to reach' as they are generally reticent to open up to outsider researchers. I was able to work with a substantial sample (n=107) because, although an outsider, I was brought up alongside members of this population and was therefore trusted. The research makes a contribution by identifying this population as a separate group with a distinct ethnicity, language, and cultural and social capital. To date, North-Western Pakistani Pashtuns have been obscured within the categories of 'Pakistani' or 'Afghani' which neglects the needs and plight of this population within England. This research, I firmly believe, is the first to provide a) insight into this population in England and b) a discussion on issues affecting their educational achievement.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: L Education (General)