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Title: Free surface dynamics in shallow turbulent flows
Author: Nichols, Andrew
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 2013
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This study aimed to understand the processes that govern free surface behaviour in depth-limited turbulent flows. Experimental data has shown that the turbulence properties at a point near the free surface relate directly to the properties of the free surface pattern. This would suggest a direct linkage between the free surface and the underlying turbulence field, but this cannot be true since the free surface pattern is strongly dynamic while the sub-surface turbulence field is relatively persistent. An oscillatory spatial correlation function was derived which explains the de-linkage, showing that the turbulence-generated surface pattern periodically inverts as it advects downstream. A model was developed, which shows that the observed free surfaces can be considered as an ensemble of overlapping but behaviourally independent oscillons. These are shown to influence a zone of fluid beneath the surface and invert at a frequency which is a function of the root-mean-square roughness height of the free surface. The spatial frequency of free surface oscillation relates strongly to the spatial frequency of turbulent structures, suggesting that the oscillon motion may form the trigger for near-bed bursting events. Given these relationships, it is proposed that measurement of the free surface behaviour may allow remote measurement of flow conditions. An acoustic wave probe was developed, which is able to remotely recover the key features of the water surface pattern. An array of such probes is proposed for the accurate measurement of temporal and spatial properties of turbulent free surfaces and hence the underlying bulk flow conditions.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: PIV; LIF; Free surface behaviour; Turbulence; Coherent structures; U-level; Acoustic; Ultrasonic; Scattering