Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Determination of acrylamide content in selected Saudi Arabian foods and estimation of the associated dietary exposure
Author: Thaiban, Maha Ali M.
ISNI:       0000 0004 5355 9422
Awarding Body: University of Leeds
Current Institution: University of Leeds
Date of Award: 2015
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
In 2002, the Swedish National Food Administration and the University of Stockholm reported that certain foods which are processed at high temperatures may contain high levels of acrylamide. Acrylamide is synthesized via the Maillard reaction from the amino acid asparagine and a reducing sugar. It has been proven from animal experiments that acrylamide is a toxic compound and it is a probable carcinogen and a mutagen for humans. Acrylamide has been found in starchy foods such as French fries, bread crust, and baked cereal foods. Some of these foods are commonly consumed by weaning infants and children. For the first time, this thesis estimated the acrylamide exposure of Saudi infants by determining the acrylamide content in foods commonly consumed by Saudi infants using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and estimating exposure using deterministic approach. Additionally, the thesis estimated the exposure to acrylamide of the UK infants, children and whole population by using published acrylamide composition and dietary information from the National Diet and Nutrition Surveys of 1992-3 (SN3481) and 2011-12 (SN6533) using deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Acrylamide levels were analysed in 16 foods commonly consumed by Saudi infants using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), however, the resolution of the acrylamide peak was not sufficient to allow quantification. LC-MS was consequently used. The food samples were extracted with water after adding 2 µg/mL of internal standard C13 acrylamide. The extract was cleaned-up with solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The LC-MC was set in positive mode at m/z 72 and 75 for acrylamide and acrylamide C13 respectively. Acrylamide levels in most foods were found to be lower than the limit of detection (LOD) (17.2 µg/kg). Saudi infants had a median exposure of 0.22 µg/kg-bw/day. The exposure in British infants, children and whole population were ranged between 0.43 to 1.07 µg/kg-bw/day. Most groups –except Saudi infants- have an upper percentile that exceeds the tolerable daily intake (TDI) cancer value (2.6 µg/kg-bw/day). Overall, results show Saudi infants are at low risk of acrylamide-related disease, but 25% of UK infants, children and whole population may be at risk and should reduce consumption of acrylamide containing foods.
Supervisor: Marshall, Lisa ; Orfila, Caroline ; Holmes, Melvin Sponsor: King Abdulaziz University
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available