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Title: Surface roughness characterisation of the polymeric films by atomic force microscopy
Author: Yousaf, Yusra
ISNI:       0000 0004 5364 0335
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2015
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Probe microscopy techniques (Atomic Force Microscopy and Kelvin Force Microscopy) have been shown to be instrumental in the analysis of samples; such as resists and nanostructured materials. Through these techniques detailed surface information has been derived, including information such as surface roughness and surface charge distribution. Poly(Methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), remains at the forefront of resists utilised in e-beam lithography in the electronics industry. Surface morphology (specifically roughness) analysis remains a key parameter of investigation, particularly in the examination of polymeric films. This research aimed to investigate PMMA based electron beam resists as well as a novel (SML) resist material in terms of suitability for electron-beam lithography. Various concentrations (5, 7, 8, 9 and 11% w/v) of both PMMA and the novel resist material were spin-coated onto silica substrates. Samples were baked at 180oC for 3 minutes and examined under ultra-high vacuum using Omicron AFM/SPM to derive RMS values in order to assess roughness in addition to thickness measurements taken. SML resists were then utilised in the development of a new digital etch onto InGaAs/InAlAs wafer. The novel, SML resist material was found to offer smoother resist surface even at higher concentrations of polymer, a difference which was observed to be statistically significant (p<0.01). The SML resist was also notably thicker than the comparable PMMA resist (p>0.05) indicating that lower concentrations of the novel resist would be required to achieve the required resist thickness. Digital etching rates were found to be in agreement with previously documented findings. SML was concluded to be a superior resist in terms of thickness and smoothness, with AFM being further established as an essential characterization technique.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Atomic force microscopy ; scanning force microscopy ; e beam resists ; sml resist ; pmma resist ; surface roughness ; positive tome resists