Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Human monstrosities : their origin and treatment
Author: Witkin, Morris
Awarding Body: University of Edinburgh
Current Institution: University of Edinburgh
Date of Award: 1930
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Full text unavailable from EThOS. Please try the link below.
Access from Institution:
1. Human monstrosities are of great interest to the physician, surgeon, and obstretician. || 2. Until the 19th century, malformations were attributed to the influences of wrathful gods, devils, witches, sex perversions, the moon, eclipses, comets, and "maternal impressions". || 3. Scientific teratology only commenced in the 17th century. || 4. Connections between animals of different species have been proved conclusively to be sterile. || 5. Germinal life of embryo lasts about one week. || 6. Embryonic life lasts about five weeks. || 7. Foetal life lasts for the remainder of the ante-natal period. || 8. Normal development is a form of twinning - "symmetrical division". || 9. Uniovular twins originate from one ovum, and is not a normal physiological process. || 10. Double monsters also originate from one ovum, and are due to partial fission of embryonic axis. || 11. Binovular twinning is not true twinning. || 12. The armadillo has supplied valuable data regarding early mammalian development. || 13. The corpus luteum is a guide as to the number of ova involved in a pregnancy. || 14. There is a period of quiescence of about three weeks in early development of the armadillo. This may explain its polyembryony, and may also explain uniovular twinning in man. || 15. Twinning is due to a period of quiescence as a result of an upset in the growth regulating mechanism of the ovum. || 16. In epignathus we have complete fission with partial inclusion || 17. In foetus in foetu we have complete fission with total inclusion. || 18. Malformations can be produced experimentally in some animals by: (1) violent agitation, (2) variations in physiochemical conditions, (3) variations in temperature, and (4) disturbance of normal respiratory interchange. || 19. The principal causes of human malformations are: (1 )amniotic bands or adhesions, (2) faulty implantation of ovum due to endometritis, (3) developmental arrest at critical stases of gastrulation, and (4) heredity. || 20. There is a growth regulating mechanism in the ovum. || 21. This mechanism is controlled by two ovular secretions: "inhibitin" which inhibits growth, and "stimulin" which stimulates growth. || 22. Normal tissues contain a similar mechanism with similar secretions. || 23. In ante-natal life, inco-ordination between these two factors leads to mal- developments and. monsters, || 24. In post -natal life such into -ordination results in simple or malignant growths. || 25. "Inhibitin" may prove a powerful "de- cancerising" agent || 26. "Stimulin" may prove equally useful in most clinical conditions of a non -malignant nature requiring the speeding-up of tissue repair. || 27. Surgery has a distinct field of usefulness in certain cases of double monsters namely, omphalopagus parasiticus, xiphopagus, thoracopagus and craniopagus. || 28. Heredity is a potent factor in physical and mental peculiarities in the offspring. || 29. There is a constant tendency towards recovery and return to a healthy stock. || 30. Eugenics is " the study of the agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations, either physically or mentally". || 31. Mendel's laws of heredity have been found also applicable in man as regards mental and physical characters. || 32. Several methods for checking the supply of human defectives have been proposed e.g. segregation, sterilisation, restrictive marriage, laws, etc. || 33. Eugenics is one of the world's most pressing problems.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (M.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available